Examining Toddlers’ Problem Behaviors: The Role of SES, Parenting Stress, Perceived Support and Negative Intentionality
We aimed to explore profiles of mothers with respect to two key risk factors, SES and parenting stress, and then examine the role of maternal perceived social support and negative intentionality in toddlers’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors in these mother profiles.
A sample of 463 mothers with 1–3 years old non-clinical toddlers completed scales. First, in Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), we identified two distinct mother profiles, as high SES–low stress (low-risk) and low SES–high stress (high-risk) groups. Then, we tested the pattern of associations among maternal perceived social support, negative intentionality, and child internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in a multi-group SEM analysis based on these two profiles.
There was a strong negative association between social support and both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the low-risk profile mothers, but not in the high-risk profile mothers. Regardless of mothers’ profiles, the perceived negative intentionality in toddlers’ behaviors positively predicted both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, the perceived negative intentionality did not mediate the negative association between perceived social support and toddlers’ problem behaviors.
Our findings suggest that mothers’ negative attributions about child’s behaviors can play a critical role at the early stages of problem behaviors and social support can be an important factor to decrease the child’s externalizing problem behaviors especially for the low-risk group of mothers. Intervention programs should be designed with the differential contribution of social support and negative intentionality in the onset of toddlers’ problem behaviors.
KeywordsInternalizing problem behaviors Externalizing problem behaviors Perceived social support Negative intentionality Parenting stress SES
G.A. designed, executed, conducted the analysis and wrote the paper. A.K. collaborated with the design, analysis and the writing. B.K. collaborated with the design and analysis, and the writing, and also collected data. A.O.I. collaborated in the data analysis and the writing up of the analysis.
This study was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Career Grant No: 114K813.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The current research was approved by Ozyegin University ethics committee. All procedures in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all the participants.
- Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index (3rd ed.): professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Manual for the child behavior checklist/11/2-5 and 2001 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Child Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- Anton, M. T., Jones, D. J., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2015). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and externalizing problems in African American single-mother homes: a person-oriented approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 405–415. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000086.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Aunos, M., Feldman, M., & Goupil, G. (2008). Mothering with intellectual disabilities: relationship between social support, health and well‐being, parenting and child behaviour outcomes. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21, 320–330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2008.00447.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1981). The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. London, UK: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. S. Long Eds., Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Burman, E. (2017). Deconstructing developmental psychology. 3rd Ed. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Casanueva, C., Goldman-Fraser, J., Ringeisen, H., Lederman, C., Katz, L., & Osofsky, J. D. (2010). Maternal perceptions of temperament among infants and toddlers investigated for maltreatment: implications for services need and referral. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 557–574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-010-9316-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coşkun, Y., & Akkaş, G. (2009). Engelli çocuğu olan annelerin sürekli kaygı düzeyleri ile sosyal destek algıları arasındaki ilişki. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10, 213–227.Google Scholar
- Çorapçı, F., & Arikan, G. (2017). Klinik psikolojide önleyici müdahale (Preventive intervention in clinical psychology). Türkiye Klinikleri Psikoloji Özel Dergisi, 2, 80–88.Google Scholar
- Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C. M., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 1135–1143. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: results from the adverse childhood experiences study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1453–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eker, D., Arkar, H., & Yaldız, H. (2001). Çok boyutlu algılanan sosyal destek ölçeği’nin gözden geçirilmiş formunun faktör yapısı, geçerlik, ve güvenirliği. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 12, 17–25.Google Scholar
- Erol, N., & Şimşek, Z. (1997). Türkiye Ruh Sağlığı Profili: Çocuk ve gençlerde yeterlik alanları ile sorun davranışların dağılımı. In N. Erol, C. Kılıç, M. Ulusoy, M. Keçeci & Z. Şimşek (Eds.), Türkiye Ruh Sağlığı Profili: Ön Rapor (pp. 12–33). Ankara: Aydoğdu Ofset.Google Scholar
- Fuchs, S., Klein, A. M., Otto, Y., & von Klitzing, K. (2013). Prevalence of emotional and behavioral symptoms and their impact on daily life activities in a community sample of 3- to 5-year-old children. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 44, 493–503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0343-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Garcia, A. S., Ren, L., Esteraich, J. M., & Raikes, H. H. (2017). Influence of child behavioral problems and parenting stress on parent–child conflict among low-income families: the moderating role of maternal nativity. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 63, 311–339. https://doi.org/10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.63.3.0311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Haapsamo, H., Pollock-Wurman, R. A., Kuusikko-Gauffin, S., Ebeling, H., Larinen, K., Soini, H., & Moilanen, I. (2013). Maternal stress and young children’s behavioral development: a prospective pilot study from 8 to 36 months in a Finnish sample. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 1841–1852. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2012.756874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Haberstick, B. C., Schmitz, S., Young, S. E., & Hewitt, J. K. (2005). Contributions of genes and environments to stability and change in externalizing and internalizing problems during elementary and middle school. Behavior Genetics, 35, 381–396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-004-1747-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoffman, K. T., Marvin, R. S., Cooper, G., & Powell, B. (2006). Changing toddlers’ and preschoolers’ attachment classifications. The circle of security intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1017–1026. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.6.1017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hosokawa, R. & Katsura, T. (2017). A longitudinal study of socioeconomic status, family processes, and child adjustment from preschool until early elementary school: the role of social competence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 11, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-017-0206-z.
- Karabulut, D., İlhan, A., Kumru, A., & Arikan, G. (2016). Turkish psychometric properties of Infant Intentionality Questionnaire during early childhood period. Poster presented at the 52nd National Psychiatry Congress, Antalya, Turkey.Google Scholar
- Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., Dolev, S., Sher, E., & Etzion-Carasso, A. (2002). Mothers’ insightfulness regarding their infants’ internal experience: relations with maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. Developmental Psychology, 38, 534–542. https://doi.org/10.1037//0012-1618.104.22.1684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lefkovics, E., Rigo, J., Kovacs, I., Talaber, J., Szita B., Kecskemeti, A. …Baji, I. (2018). Effect of maternal depression and anxiety on mother’s perception of child and protective role of social support. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2018.1475726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leigh, B. & Milgrom, J. (2008). Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-24.
- Mantymaa, M., Puura, K., Luoma, I., Latva, R., Salmelin, R. K., & Tamminen, T. (2012). Predicting internalizing and externalizing problems at five years by child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 153–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0255-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McLachlan, G., & Peel, D. (2004). Finite mixture models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2001). Rethinking maternal sensitivity: mothers’ comment on infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 637–648. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00039.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mert, E., Hallıoğlu, O., & Ankaralı Çamdeviren, H. (2008). Turkish version of the parenting stress index short form: a psychometric study. Journal of Medical Sciences (Türkiye Klinikleri), 28, 291–296.Google Scholar
- Montes, G., Lotyczewski, B. S., Halterman, J. S., & Hightower, A. D. (2012). School readiness among children with behavior problems at entrance into kindergarten: results from a US national study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 171, 541–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-011-1605-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2017). Mplus. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- Neece, C. L., Green, S. A., & Baker, B. L. (2012). Parenting stress and child behavior problems: a transactional relationship across time. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117, 48–66. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-117.1.48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pinderhughes, E. E., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Zelli, A. (2000). Discipline responses: influences of parents’ socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 380–400. https://doi.org/10.1037//0893-322.214.171.1240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rescorla, L., Almqvist, F., Bird., H., Dobrean, A., Erol, N., Hannesdottir, H., & Verhulst, F. (2007). Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.2.351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reznick, J. S. (2008). Inferring infant intentionality. Berlin, Germany: VDM Dr. Müller.Google Scholar
- Schüz, B., Li, A. S. W., Hardinge, A., & McEachan, R. R. C. (2017). Socioeconomic status as a moderator between social cognitions and physical activity: systematic review and meta-analysis based on the theory of planned behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- van Zeijl, J., Mesman, J., Stolk, M. N., Alink, L. R. A., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., & Koot, H. M. (2006). Terrible ones? Assessment of externalizing behaviors in infancy with the Child Behavior Checklist. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 801–810. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01616.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vieira, J. M., Matias, M., Ferreira, T., Lopez, F. G., & Matos, P. M. (2016). Parents’ work-family experiences and children’s problem behaviors: the mediating role of the parent–child relationship. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 419–430. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105–124. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weesie, J. (1999). Seemingly unrelated estimation and the cluster adjusted sandwich estimator. Stata Technical Bulletin, 52, 34–47.Google Scholar
- Wu, Y. T., Chen, W. J., Hsieh, W. S., Chen, P. C., Liao, H. F., Su, Y. N., & Jeng, S. F. (2012). Maternal-reported behavioral and emotional problems in Taiwanese preschool children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 866–873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.11.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar