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Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3327–3337 | Cite as

The Exclusionary Discipline of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Students with and Without Disabilities: A Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) National Analysis

  • Denise K. WhitfordEmail author
  • Nicholas A. Gage
  • Antonis Katsiyannis
  • Jennifer Counts
  • Luke J. Rapa
  • Anna McWhorter
Invited Paper
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

The objective of this study was to assess the rates of disciplinary exclusion for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students with and without disabilities, relative to Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White students, using 2015–2016 national level data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC).

Methods

We utilized quantitative analysis, including rates and weighted risk ratios, to assess disproportionality in disciplinary exclusions in terms of suspensions and expulsions.

Results

AI/AN students were disproportionately represented in exclusionary discipline practices, most substantially in comparison to White students, while AIAN students with disabilities were disproportionally represented in terms of suspension and expulsion risk compared to both Hispanic/Latino and White students, but not compared to Black students. The risk for AI/AN students, with and without disabilities, was highest for expulsion, the most extreme form of disciplinary exclusion.

Conclusions

AI/AN students with and without disabilities remain overrepresented in exclusionary discipline. The Largest disproportionality was evident comparing AI/AN students and White students, with AI/AN students nearly nine times more likely to receive an in-school suspension, more than 10 times more likely to receive an out-of-school suspension, nearly 16 times more likely to receive more than one out-of-school suspension, and more than 30 times more likely to be expelled. Implications and recommendations to address issues related to this overrepresentation in disciplinary exclusion are provided.

Keywords

American Indian/Alaska Native Special education Discipline Suspension Exclusion 

Notes

Author Contributions

D.K.W. co-designed the study, cleaned and coded the data for analysis, and collaborated with the writing and editing of the final manuscript. N.A.G. co-designed the study, ran data analyses, and collaborated with the writing and editing of the final manuscript. A.K.: co-designed the study and collaborated with the writing and editing of the manuscript. J.C., L.J.R. and A.M. collaborated with the writing of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

For this type of study formal consent is not required. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not obtained, because there were no individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Purdue University, Department of Educational Studies, Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Clemson UniversityClemsonUSA

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