Advertisement

Perceived Parent–adolescent Communication and Pathological Internet Use Among Chinese Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model

  • Qinxue Liu
  • Yue Lin
  • Zongkui Zhou
  • Wei ZhangEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Objectives

Previous studies have proved the relationship between parent–adolescent communication and pathological Internet use. Based on the integration of compensatory satisfaction theory and the self-determination theory, the present study investigated (a) the mediating role of psychological needs satisfaction in the relationship between perceived parent–adolescent communication and pathological Internet use, and (b) the moderating role of parental responsiveness in the mediation model.

Methods

Data were collected from 2751 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years, SD= 1.90). Participants completed anonymous questionnaires regarding parent–adolescent communication, psychological need satisfaction, perceived parental responsiveness, and pathological Internet use.

Results

The results showed that perceived parent–adolescent communication was negatively associated with pathological Internet use after controlling for demographic variables. Mediation analyses revealed that psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the association between perceived parent–adolescent communication and pathological Internet use. Moderated mediation analyses further indicated that parent–adolescent communication had a protective effect on adolescent pathological Internet use and a facilitating effect on psychological need satisfaction only for adolescents with high parental responsiveness.

Conclusion

These results enhanced the understanding of the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationship between parent–adolescent communication and pathological Internet use. These findings also expand the compensatory satisfaction theory by illuminating one of the ways of how psychological needs were unsatisfied in one’s family.

Keywords

Parent–Adolescent Communication Pathological Internet Use Psychological Need Need Satisfaction Parental Responsiveness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Education Sciences Planning project of Hubei province(2017GB004).

Author Contributions

Q.X.L. designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. Y.L. collaborated with the design and revised the manuscript. Z.K.Z. collaborated with the design. W.Z. assisted with the data analyses and revised the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional (Central China Normal University) and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants, their parents and teachers included in the study.

References

  1. Anderson, D. R., & Hanson, K. G. (2017). Screen media and parent-child interactions. In R. Barr & D. N. Linebarger (Eds.), Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and content on learning and development (pp. 173–194). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, H. L., & Olson, D. H. (1985). Parent–adolescent communication and circumplex model. Child Development, 56, 438–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumrind, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth & Society, 9, 239–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2007). Externalizing problems in fifth grade: relations with productive activity, maternal sensitivity, and harsh parenting from infancy through middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1390–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braveman, P. A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Chideya, S., Marchi, K. S., & Metzler, M., et al. (2005). Socioeconomic status in health research: one size does not fit all. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 2879–2888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, H. C. (2001). Harmony as performance: the turbulence under Chinese interpersonal communication. Discourse Studies, 3, 155–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng, C., & Li, A. Y. (2014). Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real): life: a meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 755–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cho, S. C., Kim, J. W., Kim, B. N., Lee, J. H., & Kim, E. H. (2008). Biogenetic temperament and character profiles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean adolescents with problematic Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 735–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chou, H.-L., Chou, C., & Chen, C.-H. (2016). The moderating effects of parenting styles on the relation between the Internet attitudes and Internet behaviors of high-school students in Taiwan. Computers & Education, 94, 204–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darling, N., & Toyokawa, T. (1997). Construction and Validation of the Parenting Style Inventory II (PSI-II). The Pennsylvania State University: Internal publication. http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/ndarling/lab/psiii.pdf.
  11. Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dearing, E., & Hamilton, L. C. (2006). Contemporary advances and classic advice for analyzing mediating and moderating variables. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 88–104.Google Scholar
  13. Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: the self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ennett, S. T., Foshee, V. A., Bauman, K. E., Hussong, A., Cai, L., & Reyes, H. L., et al. (2010). The social ecology of adolescent alcohol misuse. Child Development, 79, 1777–1791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fang, X. Y., Liu, L., Deng, L. Y., Liu, Q. X., Su, W. L., & Lan, J. (2015). The prevention and intervention on adolescent internet addiction. Psychological Development and Education, 31, 100–107.Google Scholar
  18. Gray, M. R., & Steinberg, L. (1999). Unpacking authoritative parenting: reassessing a multidimensional construct. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61, 574–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenfield, D. N. (1999). Psychological characteristics of compulsive Internet use: a preliminary analysis. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 2, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guan, X., & Li, X. (2017). A cross-cultural examination of family communication patterns, parent-child closeness, and conflict styles in the united states, China, and Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family Communication, 17, 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hawkins, J. D., & Weis, J. (1985). The social development model: an integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Heo, J., Oh, J., Subramanian, S. V., Kim, Y., & Kawachi, I. (2014). Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey. PloS ONE, 9(2), e87819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hong, G. K. (1989). An application of cultural and environmental issues in family therapy with immigrant Chinese Americans. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 8, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation modeling: a Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huntsinger, C. S., & Jose, P. E. (2009). Parental involvement in children’s schooling: different meanings in different cultures. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 398–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karaaslan, O., & Mahoney, G. (2015). Mediational analyses of the effects of responsive teaching on the developmental functioning of preschool children with disabilities. Journal of Early Intervention, 37, 286–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2014). A conceptual and methodological critique of Internet addiction research: towards a model of compensatory Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 351–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kildare, C. A., & Middlemiss, W. (2017). Impact of parents mobile device use on parent-child interaction: a literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 579–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kocayoruk, E. (2012). The perception of parents and well-being of adolescents: link with basic psychological need satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3624–3628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20, 4026–4052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lai, F. T., & Kwan, J. L. (2017). Socioeconomic influence on adolescent problematic internet use through school-related psychosocial factors and pattern of Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lei, L., & Wu, Y. (2007). Adolescents’ paternal attachment and Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 633–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lei, L., & Yang, Y. (2007). The development and validation of adolescent pathological Internet use scale. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39, 688–696.Google Scholar
  35. Li, W., Garland, E. L., & Howard, M. O. (2014). Family factors in Internet addiction among Chinese youth: a review of English- and Chinese-language studies. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 393–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., & Ang, P. H. (2008). Parental awareness and monitoring of adolescent internet use. Current Psychology, 27, 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data (2nd edn). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Liu, Q. X., Fang, X. Y., Deng, L. Y., & Zhang, J. T. (2012). Parent-adolescent communication, parental internet use and internet-specific norms and pathological internet use among chinese adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1269–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu, Q. X., Fang, X. Y., Zhou, Z. K., Zhang, J. T., & Deng, L. Y. (2013). Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological Internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences. Plos ONE, 8(9), e75642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu, Q. X., Fang, X. Y., Wan, J. J., & Zhou, Z. K. (2016). Need satisfaction and adolescent pathological Internet use: comparison of satisfaction perceived online and offline. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 695–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu, Q. X., Fang, X. Y., Yan, N., Zhou, Z. K., Yuan, X. J., Lan, J., & Liu, C. Y. (2015). Multi-family group therapy for adolescent Internet addiction: exploring the underlying mechanisms. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  43. Meyer, O. L., Castroschilo, L., & Aguilargaxiola, S. (2014). Determinants of mental health and self-rated health: a model of socioeconomic status, neighborhood safety, and physical activity. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1734–1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Muller, D., Judd, C. M., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 852–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus User’s Guide (7th edn). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  46. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Park, S. K., Kim, J. Y., & Cho, C. B. (2008). Prevalence of internet addiction and correlations with family factors among South Korean adolescents. Adolescence, 172(43), 895–909.Google Scholar
  48. Przybylski, A. K., Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., & Rigby, C. S. (2009). Having to versus wanting to play: background and consequences of harmonious versus obsessive engagement in video games. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 485–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shen, C. X., Liu, R. D., & Wang, D. (2013). Why are children attracted to the Internet? The role of need satisfaction perceived online and perceived in daily real life. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shi, X., Wang, J., & Zou, H. (2017). Family functioning and internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: the mediating roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Skinner, E.A. (1998). Commentary: strategies for studying social influences on motivation. In: Heckhausen J., Dewck C.S., (Eds). Motivation and self-regulation across the lifespan (pp. 216–234). New York: Cambridge,Google Scholar
  53. Smetana, J. G., Metzger, A., Gettman, D. C., & Campione‐Barr, N. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. Child Development, 77, 201–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sivo, S. A., Fan, X., Witta, E. L., & Willse, J. T. (2006). The search for” optimal” cutoff properties: fit index criteria in structural equation modeling. Journal of Experimental Education, 74, 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Suler, J. R. (1999). To get what you need: healthy and pathological Internet use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2(5), 385–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Topham, G. L., Hubbs-Tait, L., Rutledge, J. M., Page, M. C., Kennedy, T. S., Shriver, L. H., & Harrist, A. W. (2011). Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating. Appetite, 56, 261–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Schoenmakers, T. M., Tzavela, E. C., Olafsson, K., Wójcik, S., & Richardson, C. (2014). Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Van den Eijinden, R., Meerkerk, G., Vermulst, A., Spijkerman, R., & Engles, R. (2008). Online communication, compulsive Internet use, and psychosocial well-being among adolescents: a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 655–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Spijkerman, R., Vermulst, A. A., Van Rooij, T. J., & Engles, R. C. M. E. (2010). Compulsive Internet use among adolescents: bidirectional parent-child relationships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wade, S. L., Cassedy, A., Walz, N. C., Taylor, H. G., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K. O. (2011). The relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to emerging behavior problems following traumatic brain injury in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47, 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wan, J. J., Zhang, J. T., Liu, Q. X., Deng, L. Y., & Fang, X. Y. (2010). Development of college students’ psychological need Internet gratification questionnaire. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 8, 118–125.Google Scholar
  62. Wu, C., Dongping, L. I., Bao, Z., Yan, Y., & Zhou, Z. (2015). The impact of parent-child attachment on adolescent problematic internet use: a moderated mediation model. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 47, 611–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Xin, M., Xing, J., Wang, P. F., Li, H. R., Wang, M. C., & Zeng, H. (2018). Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 7, 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yang, Z., & Laroche, M. (2011). Parental responsiveness and adolescent susceptibility to peer influence: a cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Business Research, 64, 979–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zimmerman, M. A., Stoddard, S. A., Eisman, A. B., Caldwell, C. H., Aiyer, S. M., & Miller, A. (2013). Adolescent resilience: promotive factors that inform prevention. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU)Ministry of EducationWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province and School of PsychologyCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations