Longitudinal Validation of a New Measure to Assess Parental Knowledge and its Sources in Spanish Adolescents
The current study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the “Parental Knowledge Questionnaire-PKQ”, a new measure for the assessment of different constructs regarding parental knowledge and its sources of information (i.e., adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control) in the Spanish context. To test the usefulness of these theoretical constructs would contribute to improving a cultural-based approach in research, as well as to expanding the conceptual replication of Kerr and Stattin’s model across cultural contexts.
The final sample was composed of 1280 adolescents from 13 state secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), aged 12–18 (M = 13.32; SD = 1.24), 52.3% males.
The results indicated good internal consistency and construct validity for the developed scales across gender and supported a three-factor model for the sources of knowledge scale, which revealed one specific dimension of disclosure, one specific for solicitation and another specific for control. Results evidenced good convergent validity of the PKQ through bivariate associations with external criteria. Regarding longitudinal convergent validity, low adolescent disclosure was the only predictor of parental knowledge and of different types of problematic behaviour one year later. In addition, significant interactions were found between sources of knowledge, as well as between adolescent disclosure and gender.
The PKQ shows good psychometric properties and the current results replicate in the Spanish context the findings of Kerr and Stattin reinterpreting parental monitoring. Implications of these results regarding intervention programs aimed at preventing antisocial behaviour and substance use in adolescence are discussed.
KeywordsParental knowledge Adolescent disclosure Parental control Parental solicitation Problematic behaviour
O.C. designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. L.M. analysed the data and collaborated with the writing of the study. J.S. collaborated with the design and writing of the study. J.A.G-F.: collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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