Advertisement

Examining the Convergent Evidence of a Parent-Completed, Social-Emotional Screening Tool in China

  • Huichao Xie
  • Xiaoyan BianEmail author
  • Chieh-Yu Chen
  • Jane Squires
  • Ping Lu
Original Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Lacking valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional, First Edition (ASQ:SE-1), developed in the United States, was translated to Chinese and validated on the Chinese population.

Objectives

The current study examines the convergent validity of the Chinese ASQ:SE-1 by comparing its total score with the domain and composite scores on an age-appropriate comparison instruments commonly used in China. Across six ASQ:SE-1 age intervals, a total of three comparison measures were used, according to children’s ages (i.e., Chinese Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment [CITSEA]; Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], 2–3 and 4–18 year versions).

Methods

A regional sample of 618 children ages from 15 to 65 months, as well as their caregivers participated. Sample size in each ASQ:SE-1 age interval ranged from 71 to 203. Pearson correlation coefficients were analyzed.

Results

Statistically significant correlations were found between the Chinese ASQ:SE-1 and the comparison measures across age intervals. The absolute values of total score correlations ranged from .44 to .68. Some correlations approached the minimal standard for the discriminant range, especially with the sub-domains of the comparison measures.

Conclusions

Findings provided partial evidence for convergent validity between the ASQ:SE-1 and the competence scale of the CITSEA for 24- and 30-month olds. This study adds to the knowledge of evidence in support of strengths-based, parent-friendly screening instruments for use in China, as well as a need for caution in selection of instruments.

Keywords

Social-emotional development Parent-completed screening Discriminant validity Convergent validity Cross-cultural translation 

Notes

Author Contributions

H.X. designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. X.B. collaborated with the study design, took lead in the data collection, and edited the manuscript. C.Y.C. collaborated with the data analyses and edited of the manuscript. J.S. collaborated in the study design and edited the manuscript. P.L. collaborated with the data collection and manuscript editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author Xiaoyan Bian has received royalty from the publication of the Chinese Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, First Edition. Author Jane Squires has received royalty from the publication of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, First and Second Edition. Other authors do not have any conflict of interest in this study.

Ethical Approval

This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Oregon Institutional Review Board (IRB Protocol 05202014.028) and Research Compliance Services. This is an independent study with no funding sources.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Manual for the child behavior checklist/2–3 and 1992 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1991). Child behavior checklist. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  4. Alkherainej, K., & Squires, J. (2016). Accuracy of three screening instruments in identifying preschool children at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual Disability-Diagnosis and Treatment, 3(4), 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2006). Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: An algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics, 118(1), 405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). The standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  7. Bian, X., Xie, H., Squires, J., & Chen, C. Y. (2017). Adapting a parent-completed, social-emotional questionnaire in China: The Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38(2), 258–266.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bricker, D., Macy, M., Squires, J., & Marks, K. (2013). Developmental screening in your community. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
  9. Briggs, R. D., Stettler, E. M., Silver, E. J., Schrag, R. D. A., Nayak, M., Chinitz, S., & Racine, A. D. (2012). Social-emotional screening for infants and toddlers in primary care. Pediatrics, 129(2), e377–e384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Carter, A. S. (1998). Preliminary acceptability and psychometrics of the infant–toddler social and emotional assessment (ITSEA): A new adult‐report questionnaire. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19(4), 422–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cabrera, N. (2013). Positive development of minority children (Social Policy Report, Vol. 27, No. 2). Retrieved from the Society for Research in Child Development website: http://www.srcd.org/sites/default/files/documents/washington/spr_272_final.pdf.
  12. Campbell, S. B., Denham, S. A., Howarth, G. Z., Jones, S. M., Whittaker, J. V., Williford, A. P., & Darling-Churchill, K. (2016). Commentary on the review of measures of early childhood social and emotional development: Conceptualization, critique, and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 19–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter, A. S., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Jones, S. M., & Little, T. D. (2003). The infant–toddler social and emotional assessment (ITSEA): Factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(5), 495–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, C. Y., Chen, C.-I., Squires, J., Bian, X. Y., Heo, K. H., Filgueiras, A., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2017). Adapting a developmental screening measure: Exploring the effects of language and culture on a parent-completed social-emotional screening test. Infants and Young Children, 30(2), 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, Z., Li, Y., & Chen, J. (2014). Current condition of application of behavioral assessment instruments for children. Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation, 29(3), 232–234. Text in Chinese.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, L., Li, H., Wei, W., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Study on the prevalence of behavioral problems among 2,208 children aged 2–3 years and from Liuzhou City. Chinese Journal of Child Health Care, 23(3), 321–323.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, C.Y., Squires, J., Chen, C.I., Wu, R., & Xie, H. (2018). Adapting Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, Second Edition, to traditional Chinese and examining the psychometric properties. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, C. Y., Xie, H., Filgueiras, A., Squires, J., Anunciacao, L., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2017). Examining the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Ages & Stages Questionnaires-Social-Emotional: Use in public child daycare centers in Brazil. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(9), 2412–2425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. China Ministry of Education. (2012). Early learning and development guidelines for children 3–6 years of age. Beijing, China: Capital Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Chmielewski, M., Sala, M., Tang, R., & Baldwin, A. (2016). Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures. Psychological Assessment, 28(9), 1128–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Darling-Churchill, K. E., & Lippman, L. (2016). Early childhood social and emotional development: Advancing the field of measurement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glascoe, F. (2003). Parents’ evaluation of developmental status: How well do parents’ concerns identify children with behavioral and emotional problems? Clinical Pediatrics, 42, 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glascoe, F. P. (2005). Screening for developmental and behavioral problems. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., & Ulrich, C. F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halle, T. G., & Darling-Churchill, K. E. (2016). Review of measures of social and emotional development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heo, K. H., & Squires, J. (2012). Cultural adaptation of a parent–completed social emotional screening instrument for young children: Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional. Early Human Development, 88(3), 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. International Test Commission. (2001). International guidelines for test use. International Journal of Testing, 1(2), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kucuker, S., Kapci, E. G., & Uslu, R. I. (2011). Evaluation of the Turkish version of the “Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional” in identifying children with social-emotional problems. Infants and Young Children, 24(2), 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu, L., Wu, L., & Yao, K. (2003). Development of a child behavior checklist (CBCL) norm for children aged 2 to 3 years in national cities. Chinese Journal of Child Health Care, 11(6), 377–379. Text in Chinese.Google Scholar
  30. National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2016a). 2015 1% population sample survey of thePeople’s Republic of China. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201604/t20160420_1346151.html. Text in Chinese.
  31. National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2016b). Statistical communique of thePeople’s Republic of China on the 2015 national economic and social development. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201602/t20160229_1323991.html. Text in Chinese.
  32. Pontoppidan, M., Niss, N. K., Pejtersen, J. H., Julian, M. M., & Væver, M. S. (2017). Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: A systematic review. Family Practice, 34(2), 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shan, J. (2015, September 16). The battle to even out China’s skewed sex ratio. China Daily. U.S.A. Retrieved from http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-09/16/content_21893704.htm.
  34. Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  35. Squires, J., Bricker, D., & Twombly, E. (2002). Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE): A parent-completed child-monitoring system for social-emotional behaviors. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
  36. Squires, J., Bricker, D., & Twombly, E. (2002/2013). ASQ:SE user’s guide. (X. Bian, H. Xie, & R. Wang, Trans.). Shanghai, China: Shanghai Science & Technology Publishing. Text in Chinese.Google Scholar
  37. Squires, J., Bricker, D., & Twombly, E. (2015). ASQ:SE-2 user’s guide. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
  38. Squires, J., Bricker, D., Waddell, M., Funk, K., Clifford, J., & Hoselton, R. (2014). Social-Emotional Assessment Evaluation Measure (SEAM), research edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
  39. Su, L., Li, X., Huang, C., Luo, X., & Zhang, J. (2001). Norms of the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire in Chinese urban children. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9(4), 241–243.Google Scholar
  40. Su, L., Li, X., Wan, G., Yang, Z., & Luo, X. (1996). The norms of Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist in Hunan province. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 24–28. Text in Chinese.Google Scholar
  41. VanderVen, K. (2008). Promoting positive development in early childhood: Building blocks for a successful start. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Visser, J. C., Smeekens, S., Rommelse, N., Verkes, R. J., Van der Gaag, R. J., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2010). Assessment of psychopathology in 2- to 5-year-olds: Applying the Infant–Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 31(6), 611–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, H., Zhang, J., Huang, X., Liu, G., Lian, G., & Shi, S. (2009). Reliability and validity of the standardized Chinese version of the urban Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (CITSEA). Chinese Journal of Child Health Care, 17(3), 271–274. Text in Chinese.Google Scholar
  44. Whitney, C. W., Lind, B. K., & Wahl, P. W. (1998). Quality assurance and quality control in longitudinal studies. Epidemiologic Reviews, 20(1), 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xi, R., Tang, H., Zhang, Z., Cai, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, G., & Jiang, Z. (1992). A survey of the problem behaviors on 24,013 urban students from 26 units in 22 provinces and cities in China. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 4(1), 47–55.Google Scholar
  46. Ye, S., & Tan, D. (2015). A survey of preschool child behavior problems. Modern Primary and Secondary Education, 31(4), 93–100.Google Scholar
  47. Zeanah, C. H., & Zeanah, P. D. (2009). The scope of infant mental health. In C. H. Zeanah, Jr. & P. D. Zeanah (Eds.), Handbook of infant mental health. 3rd ed. (pp. 5–21). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Care CenterShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Special EducationNational Taipei University of EducationTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Early Intervention ProgramUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  5. 5.Kunshan Maternal and Child Health ClinicSuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations