Examining the Convergent Evidence of a Parent-Completed, Social-Emotional Screening Tool in China

  • Huichao Xie
  • Xiaoyan BianEmail author
  • Chieh-Yu Chen
  • Jane Squires
  • Ping Lu
Original Paper



Lacking valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional, First Edition (ASQ:SE-1), developed in the United States, was translated to Chinese and validated on the Chinese population.


The current study examines the convergent validity of the Chinese ASQ:SE-1 by comparing its total score with the domain and composite scores on an age-appropriate comparison instruments commonly used in China. Across six ASQ:SE-1 age intervals, a total of three comparison measures were used, according to children’s ages (i.e., Chinese Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment [CITSEA]; Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], 2–3 and 4–18 year versions).


A regional sample of 618 children ages from 15 to 65 months, as well as their caregivers participated. Sample size in each ASQ:SE-1 age interval ranged from 71 to 203. Pearson correlation coefficients were analyzed.


Statistically significant correlations were found between the Chinese ASQ:SE-1 and the comparison measures across age intervals. The absolute values of total score correlations ranged from .44 to .68. Some correlations approached the minimal standard for the discriminant range, especially with the sub-domains of the comparison measures.


Findings provided partial evidence for convergent validity between the ASQ:SE-1 and the competence scale of the CITSEA for 24- and 30-month olds. This study adds to the knowledge of evidence in support of strengths-based, parent-friendly screening instruments for use in China, as well as a need for caution in selection of instruments.


Social-emotional development Parent-completed screening Discriminant validity Convergent validity Cross-cultural translation 


Author Contributions

H.X. designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. X.B. collaborated with the study design, took lead in the data collection, and edited the manuscript. C.Y.C. collaborated with the data analyses and edited of the manuscript. J.S. collaborated in the study design and edited the manuscript. P.L. collaborated with the data collection and manuscript editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author Xiaoyan Bian has received royalty from the publication of the Chinese Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, First Edition. Author Jane Squires has received royalty from the publication of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, First and Second Edition. Other authors do not have any conflict of interest in this study.

Ethical Approval

This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Oregon Institutional Review Board (IRB Protocol 05202014.028) and Research Compliance Services. This is an independent study with no funding sources.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Shanghai Maternal and Child Health Care CenterShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Special EducationNational Taipei University of EducationTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Early Intervention ProgramUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  5. 5.Kunshan Maternal and Child Health ClinicSuzhouChina

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