Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 560–576 | Cite as

Parenting and Late Adolescents’ Well-Being in Greece, Norway, Poland and Switzerland: Associations with Individuation from Parents

  • Ania FilusEmail author
  • Beate Schwarz
  • Kostas Mylonas
  • David L. Sam
  • Pawel Boski
Original Paper


Cross-cultural studies focusing on individuation and parent-child relationships during late adolescence in the European context are sparse. This study investigated relationships between maternal and paternal responsiveness, demandingness and autonomy granting and late adolescents’ subjective well-being in Greece, Norway, Poland, and Switzerland. Additionally, the role of psychological, functional, and financial aspects of adolescents’ individuation in these relationships were assessed. Late adolescents (18–20-years-old, N = 745) reported on their parents’ behaviors and themselves. Structural models with latent constructs were applied to test the hypothesized relationships. Results showed that in all four countries, maternal and paternal autonomy granting and responsiveness were positively associated with adolescents’ well-being. No significant results were found for demandingness. Further, the study found that psychological and functional connectedness with mothers and financial connectedness with fathers partially explained the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents’ well-being. The results indicate more similarities than differences across Europe in the associations between parenting on late adolescents’ outcomes. More importantly, the study points out that maternal and paternal parenting may play different roles in late adolescence.


Parenting Late adolescents Well-being Individuation Europe 



This research was conducted with funding support from the Polish National Foundation Research Grant (KBN 106219538), Norway Grants (FSS/II/D3/W/0012), Greek Ministry of National Education Fellowship, and Swiss Government Fellowship (SCIEX-NMsch 10.074-2).

Authors contributions

AF: led the conception, design and drafting of the paper and led the analysis and interpretation of the data. BS, DLS and PB: made substantial contributions to the conception, design, writing and editing of the paper. KS: made substantial contribution to the analyses of the data and interpretation of results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This study was funded by: Polish National Foundation Research Grant (KBN 106219538), Norway Grants (FSS/II/D3/W/0012), Greek Ministry of National Education Fellowship, and Swiss Government Fellowship (SCIEX-NMsch 10.074-2).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors (AF, BS, KM, DLS and PB) certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval was granted from the University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Poland prior to commencement of the study.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2018_1283_MOESM1_ESM.doc (778 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Zurich University of Applied SciencesWinterthurSwitzerland
  3. 3.National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  4. 4.University of BergenBergenNorway
  5. 5.University of Social Sciences and HumanitiesWarsawPoland

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