Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 4116–4125 | Cite as

Cross-Lagged Panel Analyses of Child Shyness, Maternal and Paternal Authoritarian Parenting, and Teacher-Child Relationships in Mainland China

  • Junsheng Liu
  • Bowen Xiao
  • Robert J. CoplanEmail author
  • Xinyin Chen
  • Dan Li
Original Paper


The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations among child shyness, harsh maternal and paternal parenting styles, and close teacher-child relationships in the cultural context of contemporary urban China. Participants were N = 1,154 third through seventh-grade students (566 boys, 588 girls; Mage = 10.78 years, SD= 1.55), recruited from schools in Shanghai, P. R. China. Data were collected at two time-periods over a one-year period using multi-source assessments. Children provided self-reports of shyness, mothers and fathers rated their own harsh parenting, and teachers assessed teacher-child relationships. Among the results, shyness predicted increased incremental change in harsh parenting (for both mothers and fathers) and incremental decrease in close teacher-child relationships one year later. Results are discussed in terms of the evolving meaning and implications of child shyness in contemporary Chinese culture.


Shyness Parenting Teacher-child relationships Culture 


Author Contributions

JL: designed and executed the study, performed data analyses, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. BX: assisted with data analyses and writing the manuscript. RJC: collaborated in study design and writing/editing of the final manuscript. XC: collaborated in study design and editing of the final manuscript. DL: collaborated in study design assisted with editing of manuscript.


This research was supported by the Peak Discipline Construction Project of Education at East China Normal University and the Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science Project (18YJA190009). We are grateful to the children and teachers for their participation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Shanghai Normal University provided IRB approval for the current study.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyShanghai Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

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