Well-being and Substance Use in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Individual and Family Factors in Childhood and Adolescence
- 39 Downloads
The present study examined the long-term impact of individual and family factors during childhood and adolescence on outcomes associated with the transition to adulthood, specifically well-being and substance use. Data for this study were drawn from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) and Transition to Adulthood (TA) surveys (n = 1362), both a part of The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We first examined the influence of individual and family factors from childhood and adolescence on well-being and substance use during the transition to adulthood using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). We then applied a mixture modeling approach to evaluate whether there were subgroups (latent classes) in these transitions to adulthood outcomes, and how these subgroups linked with the individual and family factors from younger years. We found that, in general, parental acceptance and psychological control in childhood and adolescence predicted all aspects of well-being during the transition to adulthood. Substance use during this transition was linked with being male, White, and heightened parental psychological control. Overall, observable differential associations between individual and family factors during childhood and adolescence and outcomes in later life highlighted a need to evaluate transitional aspects independently, rather than grouping young adults all together.
Key wordsWell-being Substance use Individual behavioral problems Parental acceptance Parental control Economic problems Transition into adulthood
The authors thank the Panel Study of Income Dynamics research team for providing us with the data necessary for our analysis.
The collection of PSID data used in this study was partly supported by the National Institutes of Health under grant number R01 HD069609 and the National Science. Foundation under award number 1157698. No direct support was received from grant R01 HD069609 and National Science Foundation (1157698) for completing analyses and writing this manuscript. This article did not receive any funding for study design, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
C.L.: Designed the study, ran data analyses, and took lead role in drafting manuscript. T.B.: Assisted with study design and provided substantial content and editing assistance. I.M.: Assisted with literature review material.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Data for this study was drawn from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) and Transition to Adulthood (TA) surveys from The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a nationally representative longitudinal study. This article does not contain any studies with human participants recruited by any of the authors.
- Arnett, J. J., & Tanner, J. L. (2016). Emerging adults in America: coming of age in the 21st century. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Barber, B. K., Maughan, S. L. & Olsen, J. A. (2005a) Patterns of parenting across adolescence. New directions for child and adolescent development, 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.124
- Barber, B., Stolz, H., Olsen, J., Collins, W., & Burchinal, M. (2005b). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: assessing relevance across time, culture, and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70(4), I–147..Google Scholar
- Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(2), 192–202. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Buu, A., Dipiazza, C., Wang, J., Puttler, L. I., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Zucker, R. A. (2009). Parent, family, and neighborhood effects on the development of child substance use and other psychopathology from preschool to the start of adulthood. Journals of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 489–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: from age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 55–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00855.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chassin, L., Flora, D. B., & King, K. M. (2004). Trajectories of alcohol and drug bse and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: the effects of familial alcoholism and personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(4), 483–498. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.4.483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). 2015 National survey on drug use and health: Detailed tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
- Child Development Supplement (CDS-I, 2010), User Guide Supplement. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/CDS/CDS1_UGSupp.pdf.
- Dutra-Thomé, L. (2013). Emerging adulthood in southerns brazilians from differing socioeconomic status: Social and subjetive markers.Google Scholar
- Lee, C.-T., McClernon, F. J., Kollins, S. H., Prybol, K., & Fuemmeler, B. F. (2013). Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emering adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices. Jounral of Pedicatric Psychology, 38(10), 1130–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, C. (2012). The role of social status during the transition from adolesece into adulthood on smoking and alcohol behaivors (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Los Angeles, LA: University of California.Google Scholar
- McGonagle, K. A., Schoeni, R. F., Sastry, N., & Freedman, V. A. (2012). The panel study of income dynamics: overview, recent innovations, and potential for life course research. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 3, 268–284.Google Scholar
- Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: a 10-year research review and a research agenda. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 49–75). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user’s guide. 7th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nielson, M. G. (2015). Is hovering smothering or loving? An examination of parental warmth as a moderator of relations between helicopter parenting and emerging adults’ indices of adjustment. Emerging Adulthood, 3(4), 282–285. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696815576458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Jung, T. (2008). Family antecedents and consequences of trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: a life course investigation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49(4), 468–483.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yu, C-Y., Muthén, B. (2002). Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Los Angeles, LA: University of California.Google Scholar