Self-Regulation, Learning Problems, and Maternal Authoritarian Parenting in Chinese Children: A Developmental Cascades Model
- 366 Downloads
The ability to intentionally control behavior to achieve specific goals helps children concentrate in school and behave appropriately in social situations. In Chinese culture, where self-regulation is highly valued by parents and teachers, children’s difficulties self-regulating may contribute to increased learning problems and subsequent authoritarian parenting. In this study we explored the longitudinal linkages among Chinese children’s self-regulation, learning problems, and authoritarian parenting using a developmental cascades model. Participants were N = 617 primary school students in Shanghai, P.R. China followed over three years from Grade 3–4 to Grade 5–6. Measures of children’s self-regulation, learning problems, and maternal authoritarian parenting were obtained each year from a combination of child self-reports and maternal and teacher ratings. Among the results: (1) compared with the unidirectional and bidirectional models, the developmental cascades model was deemed the best fit for the data; (2) earlier self-regulation negatively predicted later authoritarian parenting via a pathway through academic performance; (3) academic performance directly and indirectly contributed to greater self-regulation. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of self-regulation for Chinese children’s academic success and authoritarian parenting practices.
KeywordsSelf-regulation Learning problems Academic achievement Authoritarian parenting Cascade models
J.L.: designed and executed the study, performed data analyses, and wrote the paper. B.X.: assisted with data analyses and writing the paper. W.E.H.: assisted with writing the paper and editing the final manuscript. R.J.C: collaborated in study design and editing of the final manuscript. P.Y.: assisted with data analyses. C.C.: contributed measures and assisted with translation of measures.
This research was funded by research grants from the Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science Project (18YJA190009) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2017ECNU-HLYT013, 2018ECNU-QKT015).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Shanghai Normal University provided IRB approval for the current study in collaboration with Carleton University and the University of Maryland Baltimore County.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Chen, X., Zhang, G., Chen, H., & Li, D. (2012). Performance on delay tasks in early childhood predicted socioemotional and school adjustment nine years later: a longitudinal study in Chinese children. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 1, 3–14.Google Scholar
- Galla, B. M., Wood, J. J., Tsukayama, E., Har, K., Chiu, A. W., & Langer, D. A. (2014). A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 52, 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greenfield, P. M., Suzuki, L. K., & Rothstein-Fisch, C. (2006). Cultural pathways through human development. In K. A. Renninger & I. E. Sigel (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology in practice (pp. 655–699). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Hightower, A. D., Work, W. C., Cowen, E. L., Lotyczewski, B. S., Spinell, A. P., Guare, J. C., & Rohrbeck, C. A. (1986). The Teacher-Child Rating Scale: A brief objective measure of elementary childrenas school problem behaviors and competencies. School Psychology Review, 15, 393–409.Google Scholar
- Ho, D. Y. (1986). Chinese patterns of socialization: a critical review. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 1–37). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kerr, M. (2001). Culture as a context for temperament: suggestions from the life courses of shy Swedes and Americans. In T. D. Wachs & G. A. Kohnstamm (Eds.), Temperament in context (pp. 139–152). NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 2nd Edition ed. New York, NY: The Guilford.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus Version7 user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics China (2011). Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People’s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
- Rao, N., Sun, J., & Zhang, L. (2014). Learning to learn in early childhood: home and preschool influences in Chinese societies. In C. Stringher & R. Deakin Crick (Eds.), Learning to learn for all: Theory, practice and international research: A multidisciplinary and lifelong perspective (pp. 127–144). Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Rothbart, M. K. & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Series Eds.), & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99-166). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Zhao, J. (2010). Relationships among mothers’ attachment, parenting style and preschoolers’ anxiety. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18, 806–808.Google Scholar
- Zhao, X., Selman, R. L., & Haste, H. (2015). Academic stress in Chinese schools and a proposed preventive intervention program. Cogent Education, 2, 1000477.Google Scholar