Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 10, pp 3395–3401 | Cite as

Parenting Styles and Academic Motivation: A Sample from Chinese High Schools

  • Jinbao Tang
  • Nan Li
  • Jaime Robert Sandoval
  • Yangyang LiuEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Parenting styles have significant influence on children’s academic motivation. In a sample composed of 226 Chinese 10th grade students and at least one respective parent (147 fathers and 165 mothers), we examined the relationship between parenting styles and students’ academic motivation by applying the self-determination theory (SDT)’s multidimensional perspective of motivation. Students’ academic motivation was assessed directly within the school environment. A questionnaire used to assess parenting styles was administered to the fathers and/or mothers of the students within the home. A path-analysis indicated, firstly, that mothers’ authoritative parenting styles were related to enhanced intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. Secondly, mothers’ authoritarian parenting styles were negatively related to introjected regulation and external regulation. Lastly, both mothers’ and fathers’ permissive parenting styles were positively related to external regulation.

Keywords

Academic motivation Adolescents Chinese Parenting styles Self-determination theory 

Notes

Author Contributions

J.T. wrote the paper. N.L. collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. J.R.S. commented and edited the final manuscript. Y.L. designed and executed the study and analyzed the data.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

References

  1. Baumrind, D. (1991a). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumrind, D. (1991b). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In J. Brooks-Gunn, R. Lerner & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), The encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 746–758). New York, NY: Garland.Google Scholar
  3. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  4. Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, X., Bian, Y., Xin, T., Wang, L., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2010). Perceived social change and childrearing attitudes in China. European Psychologist, 15, 260–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deater-Deckard, K., Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Alampay, L. P., Sorbring, E., Bacchini, D., & Al-Hassan, S. M. (2011). The association between parental warmth and control in thirteen cultural groups. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 790–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dempster, A. P., Laird, N. M., & Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 39, 1–38.Google Scholar
  8. Gonzalez, A. L., & Wolters, C. A. (2009). The relation between perceived parenting practices and achievement motivation in mathematics. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 78–99). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Grolnick, W. S., Raftery-Helmer, J. N., Flamm, E. S., Marbell, K. N., & Cardemil, E. V. (2015). Parental provision of academic structure and the transition to middle school. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25, 668–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hui, E. K. P., Sun, R. C. F., Chow, S. S. Y., & Chu, M. H. T. (2011). Explaining Chinese students’ academic motivation: Filial piety and self‐determination. Educational Psychology, 31, 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Joussemet, M., Landry, R., & Koestner, R. (2008). A self-determination theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49, 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim, J.-I., Schallert, D. L., & Kim, M. (2010). An integrative cultural view of achievement motivation: Parental and classroom predictors of children’s goal orientations when learning mathematics in Korea. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 418–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu, Y. (2015). The longitudinal relationship between Chinese high school students’ academic stress and academic motivation. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu, H. J., & Chang, L. (2013). Parenting and socialization of only children in urban China: An example of authoritative parenting. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 174, 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1–101). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2006). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Otis, N., Grouzet, F. E., & Pelletier, L. G. (2005). Latent motivational change in an academic setting: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 170–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reitman, D., Rhode, P., Hupp, S. A., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the parental authority questionnaire – revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of self-determination in 3 life domains: The role of parents’ and teachers’ autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 589–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Supple, A. J., Ghazarian, S. R., Peterson, G. W., & Bush, K. R. (2009). Assessing the cross-cultural validity of a parental autonomy granting measure: Comparing adolescents in the United States, China, Mexico, and India. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 816–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Brie’re, N. M., Se´ne´cal, C., & Vallie’res, E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vansteenkiste, M., Niemiec, C. P., & Soenens, B. (2010). The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: An historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions. In T. Urdan & S. Karabenick (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 16, pp. 105–165). UK: Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Vansteenkiste, M., Zhou, M., Lens, W., & Soenens, B. (2005). Experiences of autonomy and control among Chinese learners: Vitalizing or immobilizing? Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 468–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Way, N., Okazaki, S., Zhao, J., Kim, J. J., Chen, X., Yoshikawa, H., & Deng, H. (2013). Social and emotional parenting: Mothering in a changing Chinese society. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4, 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu, P., Robinson, C. C., Yang, C., Hart, C. H., Olsen, S. F., Porter, C. L., & Wu, X. (2002). Similarities and differences in mothers’ parenting of preschoolers in China and the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 481–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhou, M., Ma, W. J., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The importance of autonomy for rural Chinese children’s motivation for learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 492–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinbao Tang
    • 1
  • Nan Li
    • 2
  • Jaime Robert Sandoval
    • 2
  • Yangyang Liu
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina
  2. 2.University of HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.Tianjin UniversityTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations