Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 10, pp 3141–3154 | Cite as

Strategies to Engage Underrepresented Parents in Child Intervention Services: A Review of Effectiveness and Co-occurring Use

  • Melanie PellecchiaEmail author
  • Heather J. Nuske
  • Diondra Straiton
  • Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick
  • Amanda Gulsrud
  • Suzannah Iadarola
  • Sarah Fulton Vejnoska
  • Beth Bullen
  • Rachel Haine-Schlagel
  • Connie Kasari
  • David S. Mandell
  • Tristram Smith
  • Aubyn C. Stahmer
Review Paper


The purpose of this review was to estimate the impact of parent engagement strategies tested with underrepresented families of young children with social, emotional, or behavioral disorders, and describe the combinations in which these strategies are commonly used together. We conducted a systematic review using the PracticeWise Engagement Coding System to identify which strategies had the strongest empirical support for engaging underrepresented (i.e., minority race or ethnicity, or low income) families receiving psychosocial services for their children. Social network analyses were used to identify the frequency of strategy use and how strategies were combined to engage underrepresented families. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of each strategy on parent engagement, using attrition as a proxy for non-engagement. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Parent attrition was predicted by larger sample sizes, lower maternal education, interventions that were more community or home-based, less therapist monitoring, positive reinforcement from therapists, and more pairing families with peers. Social network analyses suggested that more effective strategies were more frequently implemented alone and less effective strategies were commonly combined with each other. Our findings suggest that researchers and practitioners require guidance in selecting engagement strategies to reduce attrition of underrepresented families in treatment. Although we identified promising strategies for improving parent engagement in treatment for underrepresented children with social, emotional, or behavioral disorders, the frequent combining of engagement strategies in research means that there is little data on the independent effects of interventions to increase parent engagement for this population.


Parent engagement Underrepresented parents Attrition Peer pairing Social network analysis 




This study was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), award number UA3 MC11055 HRSA (PI: Kasari).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. **Articles Included in the ReviewGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker, K. D., Lee, B. R., Daleiden, E. L., Lindsey, M., Brandt, N. E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2015). The common elements of engagement in children’s mental health services: which elements for which outcomes? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 30–43.Google Scholar
  3. Boyd, R. D., & Corley, M. J. (2001). Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting. Autism, 5(4), 430–441. Scholar
  4. **Bradshaw, C. P., Zmuda, J. H., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2009). Longitudinal impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on educational outcomes in high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 926.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Breiger, R. L. (1974). The duality of persons and groups. Social Forces, 53, 181–190.Google Scholar
  6. **Brotman, L. M., Klein, R. G., Kamboukos, D., Brown, E. J., Coard, S. I., & Sosinsky, L. S. (2003). Preventive intervention for urban, low-income preschoolers at familial risk for conduct problems: a randomized pilot study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 246–257.Google Scholar
  7. **Brotman, L. M., Dawson-McClure, S., Calzada, E. J., Huang, K. Y., Kamboukos, D., Palamar, J. J., & Petkova, E. (2013). Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement. Pediatrics, 131, e1521–e1529.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. **Canning, S. S., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2000). Competent families, collaborative professionals: empowered parent education for low income, African American families. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 20, 179–196.Google Scholar
  9. Carley K. M., & Jeff, R. (2004). ORA: organization risk analyzer [Technical report]/Carnegie Mellon University. School of Computer Science. [Institute for Software Research International]: Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science, Institute for Software Research International].Google Scholar
  10. Chacko, A., Gopolan, G., Franco, L., Dean-Assael, K., Jackson, J., Marcus, S., Hoagwood, K., & McKay, M. (2015). Multiple family group service model for children with disruptive behavior disorders: child outcomes at post-treatment. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 23, 67–77.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Chacko, A., Jensen, S. A., Lowry, L. S., Cornwell, M., Chimklis, A., Chan, E., & Pulgarin, B. (2016). Engagement in behavioral parent training: review of the literature and implications for practice. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19, 204–215.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2009). Mapping evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: application of the distillation and matching model to 615 treatments from 322 randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 566–579. Scholar
  13. Coker, T. R., Chacon, S., Elliott, M. N., Bruno, Y., Chavis, T., Biely, C., & Chung, P. J. (2016). A parent coach model for well-child care among low-income children: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 137, 1–10.Google Scholar
  14. Daniels, A. M., & Mandell, D. S. (2013). Children’s compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics’ well-child care visit guidelines and the early detection of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2844–2854.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. **Dawson-McClure, S., Calzada, E., Huang, K. Y., Kamboukos, D., Rhule, D., Kolawole, B., Petkova, E., & Brotman, L. M. (2015). A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems. Prevention Science, 16, 279–290.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. **Delaney, E. M., & Kaiser, A. P. (2001). The effects of teaching parents blended communication and behavior support strategies. Behavioral Disorders, 26, 93-116.Google Scholar
  17. DeLoatche, K. J., Bradley-Klug, K. L., Ogg, J., Kromrey, J. D., & Sundman-Wheat, A. N. (2015). Increasing parent involvement among Head Start families: a randomized control group study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43, 271-279.Google Scholar
  18. Dickson, K. S., Zeedyk, S. M., Martinez, J., & Haine-Schlagel, R. (2017). Examining ethnic disparities in provider and parent in-session participation engagement. Journal of Children’s Services, 12, 47–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. **Dionne, R., Davis, B., Sheeber, L., & Madrigal, L. (2009). Initial evaluation of a cultural approach to implementation of evidence‐based parenting interventions in American Indian communities. Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 911–921.Google Scholar
  20. **Dishion, T. J., Poulin, F., & Burraston, B. (2001). Peer goup dynamics associated with iatrogenic effect in group interventions with high-risk young adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2001, 79–92.Google Scholar
  21. **Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The family check‐up with high‐risk indigent families: preventing problem behavior by increasing parents’ positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 79, 1395–1414.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. **Dorsey, S., Pullmann, M. D., Berliner, L., Koschmann, E., McKay, M., & Deblinger, E. (2014). Engaging foster parents in treatment: a randomized trial of supplementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with evidence-based engagement strategies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 1508–1520.Google Scholar
  23. dosReis, S., Barksdale, C. L., Sherman, A., Maloney, K., & Charach, A. (2010). Stigmatizing experiences of parents of children with a new diagnosis of ADHD. Psychiatric Services, 61, 811–816.Google Scholar
  24. Dowell, K. A., & Ogles, B. M. (2010). The effects of parent participation on child psychotherapy outcome: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 151–162.Google Scholar
  25. **Duggan, A., Fuddy, L., McFarlane, E., Burrell, L., Windham, A., Higman, S., & Sia, C. (2004). Evaluating a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse in at-risk families of newborns: fathers’ participation and outcomes. Child Maltreatment, 9, 3–17.Google Scholar
  26. **Dumas, J. E., Begle, A. M., French, B., & Pearl, A. (2010). Effects of monetary incentives on engagement in the PACE parenting program. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 302–313.Google Scholar
  27. **Eisner, M., & Meidert, U. (2011). Stages of parental engagement in a universal parent training program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 32, 83–93.Google Scholar
  28. Evans, S. W., Owens, J. S., & Bunford, N. (2014). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 527–551.Google Scholar
  29. Eyberg, S. (1988). Parent-child interaction therapy: integration of traditional and behavioral concerns. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 10(1), 33–46.Google Scholar
  30. Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O’Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 129–140.Google Scholar
  31. **Fantuzzo, J., Stevenson, H., Kabir, S. A., & Perry, M. A. (2007). An investigation of a community-based intervention for socially isolated parents with a history of child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 81–89.Google Scholar
  32. Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.Google Scholar
  33. Foster, S. L., Cunningham, P. B., Warner, S. E., McCoy, D. M., Barr, T. S., & Henggeler, S. W. (2009). Therapist behavior as a predictor of black and white caregiver responsiveness in multisystemic therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 626.Google Scholar
  34. **Fung, M. P., & Fox, R. A. (2014). The culturally-adapted early pathways program for young Latino children in poverty: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 2, 131.Google Scholar
  35. Geyer, S., Hemström, Ö., Peter, R., & Vågerö, D. (2006). Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably in social epidemiology. Empirical evidence against a common practice. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 804–810.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Gopalan, G., Goldstein, L., Klingenstein, K., Sicher, C., Blake, C., & McKay, M. M. (2010). Engaging families into child mental health treatment: updates and special considerations. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 182–196.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. **Gross, D., Johnson, T., Ridge, A., Garvey, C., Julion, W., Treysman, A. B., & Fogg, L. (2011). Cost-effectiveness of childcare discounts on parent participation in preventive parent training in low-income communities. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 32, 283–298.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Gulsrud, A. C., Hellemann, G., Shire, S., & Kasari, C. (2015). Isolating active ingredients in a parent‐mediated social communication intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 606–613.Google Scholar
  39. Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A review of parent participation engagement in child and family mental health treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18, 133–150.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. **Hancock, T. B., Kaiser, A. P., & Delaney, E. M. (2002). Teaching parents of preschoolers at high risk strategies to support language and positive behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22, 191–212.Google Scholar
  41. Harrington, C., & Kang, T. (2008). Disparities in service utilization and expenditures for individuals with developmental disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 1, 184–195.Google Scholar
  42. **Heinrichs, N. (2006). The effects of two different incentives on recruitment rates of families into a prevention program. Journal of Primary Prevention, 27, 345–365.Google Scholar
  43. Holden, G. W., Lavigne, V. V., & Cameron, A. M. (1990). Probing the continuum of effectiveness in parent training: characteristics of parents and preschoolers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 2–8.Google Scholar
  44. Hosmer, D. W., Lemeshow, S., (2000). Interpretation of the fitted logistic regression model. In: N.A. Cressie, N. I. Fisher, I. M. Johnstone, J. B. Kadame (eds.) Applied Logistic Regression. 2 47–90. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. .Google Scholar
  45. **Hurwitz, L. B., Lauricella, A. R., Hanson, A., Raden, A., & Wartella, E. (2015). Supporting Head Start parents: impact of a text message intervention on parent–child activity engagement. Early Child Development and Care, 185, 1373–1389.Google Scholar
  46. **Jung, S., & Stone, S. (2008). Sociodemographic and programmatic moderators of Early Head Start: evidence from the national Early Head Start research and evaluation project. Children & Schools, 30, 149–157.Google Scholar
  47. Kaminski, J. W., & Claussen, A. H. (2017). Evidence base update for psychosocial treatments for disruptive behaviors in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 477–499.Google Scholar
  48. Kasari, C., Gulsrud, A. C., Wong, C., Kwon, S., & Locke, J. (2010). Randomized controlled caregiver mediated joint engagement intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1045–1056.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Kazantzis, N., Whittington, C., & Dattilio, F. (2010). Meta‐analysis of homework effects in cognitive and behavioral therapy: a replication and extension. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 144–156.Google Scholar
  50. Kazdin, A. E. (1997). Parent management training: evidence, outcomes, and issues. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1349–1356.Google Scholar
  51. Kazdin, A. E., & Whitley, M. K. (2003). Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 504.Google Scholar
  52. **Kjøbli, J., Hukkelberg, S., & Ogden, T. (2013). A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 113–121.Google Scholar
  53. **Knoche, L. L., Edwards, C. P., Sheridan, S. M., Kupzyk, K. A., Marvin, C. A., Cline, K. D., & Clarke, B. L. (2012). Getting ready: results of a randomized trial of a relationship‐focused intervention on the parent–infant relationship in rural early head start. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 439–458.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Lanier, P., Kohl, P. L., Benz, J., Swinger, D., Moussette, P., & Drake, B. (2011). Parent–child interaction therapy in a community setting: examining outcomes, attrition, and treatment setting. Research on Social Work Practice, 21, 689–698.Google Scholar
  55. Law, M., King, S., Stewart, D., & King, G. (2002). The perceived effects of parent-led support groups for parents of children with disabilities. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 21, 29–48.Google Scholar
  56. **Lees, D. G., & Ronan, K. R. (2008). Engagement and effectiveness of parent management training (Incredible Years) for solo high-risk mothers: a multiple baseline evaluation. Behaviour Change, 25, 109–128.Google Scholar
  57. Lindsey, M. A., Brandt, N. E., Becker, K. D., Lee, B. R., Barth, R. P., Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2014). Identifying the common elements of treatment engagement interventions in children’s mental health services. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 283–298.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Lovell, B., Moss, M., & Wetherell, M. A. (2012). With a little help from my friends: Psychological, endocrine and health corollaries of social support in parental caregivers of children with autism or ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 682–687.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Magiati, I., Charman, T., & Howlin, P. (2007). A two-year prospective follow-up study of community-based early intensive behavioural intervention and specialist nursery provision for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 48(8), 803–812. [pii]10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01756.x.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Magaña, S., Lopez, K., Aguinaga, A., & Morton, H. (2013). Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 51, 141–153.Google Scholar
  61. Mandell, D. S., Listerud, J., Levy, S. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among Medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1447–1453.Google Scholar
  62. Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116, 1480–1486.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. **McDonald, L., Miller, H., & Sandler, J. (2015). A social ecological, relationship-based strategy for parent involvement: Families and Schools Together (FAST). Journal of Children’s Services, 10, 218–230.Google Scholar
  64. **Mejia, A., Calam, R., & Sanders, M. R. (2015). A pilot randomized controlled trial of a brief parenting intervention in low-resource settings in Panama. Prevention Science, 16, 707–717.Google Scholar
  65. **Mendez, J. L. (2010). How can parents get involved in preschool? Barriers and engagement in education by ethnic minority parents of children attending Head Start. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 26.Google Scholar
  66. **Mian, N. D., Eisenhower, A. S., & Carter, A. S. (2015). Targeted prevention of childhood anxiety: engaging parents in an underserved community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 55, 58–69.Google Scholar
  67. Michie, S., Fixsen, D., Grimshaw, J. M., & Eccles, M. P. (2009). Specifying and reporting complex behaviour change interventions: the need for a scientific method. Implementation Science, 4, 40.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, L. M., Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Allin, R. B. (2008). Who stays in treatment? Child and family predictors of youth client retention in a public mental health agency. Child & Youth Care Forum, 37, 153–170.Google Scholar
  69. Mohr, D. C., Hart, S. L., Howard, I., Julian, L., Vella, L., Catledge, C., & Feldman, M. D. (2006). Barriers to psychotherapy among depressed and nondepressed primary care patients. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 254–258.Google Scholar
  70. Morgan, P. L., Staff, J., Hillemeier, M. M., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2013). Racial and ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis from kindergarten to eighth grade. Pediatrics, 132, 85–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Myers, B. J., Mackintosh, V. H., & Goin-Kochel, R. P. (2009). “My greatest joy and my greatest heart ache:” parents’ own words on how having a child in the autism spectrum has affected their lives and their families’ lives. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 670–684.Google Scholar
  72. Nock, M. K., & Kazdin, A. E. (2001). Parent expectancies for child therapy: assessment and relation to participation in treatment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 155–180.Google Scholar
  73. Nock, M. K., & Ferriter, C. (2005). Parent management of attendance and adherence in child and adolescent therapy: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8(2), 149–166.Google Scholar
  74. Owens, P. L., Hoagwood, K., Horwitz, S. M., Leaf, P. J., Poduska, J. M., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2002). Barriers to children’s mental health services. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 731–738.Google Scholar
  75. **Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., Healey, C. V., Yoerger, K., & Fisher, P. A. (2015). Improving child self-regulation and parenting in families of pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties. Prevention Science, 16, 222–232.Google Scholar
  76. Pickles, A., Harris, V., Green, J., Aldred, C., McConachie, H., & Slonims, V., the PACT Consortium. (2015). Treatment mechanism in the MRC preschool autism communication trial: implications for study design and parent-focussed therapy for children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 162–170.Google Scholar
  77. **Pratt, M. E., Lipscomb, S. T., & Schmitt, S. A. (2015). The effect of Head Start on parenting outcomes for children living in non-parental care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 2944–2956.Google Scholar
  78. Reeves, G. M., Wehring, H. J., Connors, K. M., Bussell, K., Schiffman, J., Medoff, D. R., Tsuji, T., Walker, J., Brown, A., Strobeck, D., & Clough, T. (2015). The family value of information, community support, and experience study: rationale, design, and methods of a “family-centered” research study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203, 896–900.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Parent training in Head Start: a comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prevention Science, 2, 209–227.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. **Sheridan, S. M., Knoche, L. L., Edwards, C. P., Bovaird, J. A., & Kupzyk, K. A. (2010). Parent engagement and school readiness: effects of the Getting Ready intervention on preschool children’s social–emotional competencies. Early Education and Development, 21, 125–156.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. **Sheridan, S. M., Knoche, L. L., Kupzyk, K. A., Edwards, C. P., & Marvin, C. A. (2011). A randomized trial examining the effects of parent engagement on early language and literacy: the Getting Ready intervention. Journal of School Psychology, 49, 361–383.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. **Sheridan, S. M., Knoche, L. L., Edwards, C. P., Kupzyk, K. A., Clarke, B. L., & Kim, E. M. (2014). Efficacy of the Getting Ready intervention and the role of parental depression. Early Education and Development, 25, 746–769.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Smith, T., & Iadarola, S. (2015). Evidence base update for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 897–922.Google Scholar
  84. Snell-Johns, J., Mendez, J. L., & Smith, B. H. (2004). Evidence-based solutions for overcoming access barriers, decreasing attrition, and promoting change with underserved families. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 19.Google Scholar
  85. Staudt, M. (2007). Treatment engagement with caregivers of at-risk children: gaps in research and conceptualization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 183–196.Google Scholar
  86. **Stern, S. B., Walsh, M., Mercado, M., Levene, K., Pepler, D. J., Carr, A., Heppell, A., & Lowe, E. (2015). When they call, will they come? A contextually responsive approach for engaging multistressed families in an urban child mental health center: a randomized clinical trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 25, 549–563.Google Scholar
  87. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Analysis of covariance. Using Multivariate Statistics, 8(1), 321–374.Google Scholar
  88. Thomas, P., Zahorodny, W., Peng, B., Kim, S., Jani, N., Halperin, W., & Brimacombe, M. (2011). The association of autism diagnosis with socioeconomic status. Autism, 16, 201–213.Google Scholar
  89. Thompson, S. J., Bender, K., Lantry, J., & Flynn, P. M. (2007). Treatment engagement: Building therapeutic alliance in home-based treatment with adolescents and their families. Contemporary Family Therapy, 29, 39–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Torssander, J., & Erikson, R. (2010). Stratification and mortality—a comparison of education, class, status, and income. European Sociological Review, 26, 465–474.Google Scholar
  91. **Towson & Gallagher. (2014). Towson, J. A. (2014). Training Head Start parents in dialogic reading to improve outcomes for children. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 7, 287.Google Scholar
  92. **Turner, K. M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 43, 429–437.Google Scholar
  93. Woodgate, R. L., Ateah, C., & Secco, L. (2008). Living in a world of our own: The experience of parents who have a child with autism. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 1075–1083.Google Scholar
  94. Yusai, M., Pottick, K. J., & Chen, Y. (2017). Conceptualizing culturally infused engagement and its measurement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 20, 250–332.Google Scholar
  95. Zuckerman, K. E., Lindly, O. J., Sinche, B. K., & Nicolaidis, C. (2015). Parent health beliefs, social determinants of health, and child health services utilization among US school-age children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 36, 146.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Pellecchia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Heather J. Nuske
    • 1
  • Diondra Straiton
    • 1
  • Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick
    • 2
  • Amanda Gulsrud
    • 3
  • Suzannah Iadarola
    • 4
  • Sarah Fulton Vejnoska
    • 5
  • Beth Bullen
    • 4
  • Rachel Haine-Schlagel
    • 6
  • Connie Kasari
    • 3
  • David S. Mandell
    • 1
  • Tristram Smith
    • 4
  • Aubyn C. Stahmer
    • 5
  1. 1.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.University of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.University of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  5. 5.University of California Davis MIND InstituteDavisUSA
  6. 6.San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations