Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 3019–3026 | Cite as

Parents’ Perceptions of their Acceptance and Rejection Behaviors: Benchmarking Spain and Ecuador

  • Susana Torío-López
  • María-Dolores Palacios-Madero
  • Janeth-Catalina Mora-Oleas
  • José-Vicente Peña-Calvo
  • Mercedes Inda-Caro
Original Paper


Cross-cultural studies are necessary to test and understand how measures work in diverse multicultural societies. Positive parenting needs to be defined and the basic elements making up this construct need to be established. IPARTheory stands out as the main theory defining parenting focusing on the acceptance-rejection dimension. This study explored the factorial structure of the PARQ Questionnaire Parent Version (Short Form) in Spanish (n = 4169), with age range 20 to 72 years old; and Ecuadorian (n = 569) parents, with ages from 22 to 71 years old. This instrument assesses parents’ perceptions of their acceptance and rejection behaviors towards their children. The questionnaire has a 25-item structure in four scales: warmth-affection, hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect and undifferentiated-rejection. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model in both samples, however the invariance of the model must be accepted with caution. In addition, an ANOVA test showed statistically significative differences in the four factors between Spanish and Ecuadorian parents. Spain and Ecuador are both Latin countries; however, there are differences between them, which may explain the differences found in this research. Authorities must encourage programs and social services to educate people in parental roles and tasks, besides public policies are needed to support positive parenting, but it is important to define the domains which make this construct.


Cross-cultural issues Parenting Quantitative methodology Parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire Parent version 



We gratefully acknowledge the permission of R. P. Rohner and M.A. Carrasco to adapt the instrument for the Spanish and Ecuadorian populations. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Institutional Review Board from Schools Involved (Spain) and University of Cuenca (Ecuador).

Author Contribution

STL: conceived the study including methodological design, also participant recruitment, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data, and wrote the manuscript. MDPM: participant recruitment and data collection. JCMO: data collection. JVPC: participant recruitment, collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. MIC: conceived the study including methodological design, also participant recruitment, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data, and wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OviedoOviedoSpain
  2. 2.University of CuencaCuencaEcuador
  3. 3.National University of Ecuador (UNAE)CuencaEcuador

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