Individual Differences in Negative Affectivity and Physical Activity in Adolescents: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study
To examine the bi-directional relationships between negative affectivity (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) and adolescents’ physical activity in nearly real time. Twenty-six adolescents (Mage = 15.67 ± 1.56 years; 57.7% male) were asked to complete 80 self-report measures of their negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) via a smartphone app and wear an accelerometer as an objective assessment of their physical activity over 20 consecutive days. Negative fixed effects emerged for within-person depression and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as well as for within-person anger and MVPA. Further, there were significant random effects for each of the within-person negative affect variables and MVPA. Study findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the association between negative affect constructs and physical activity.
KeywordsPhysical activity Ecological momentary assessment Adolescent Negative affect
Christopher Cushing’s research was partially supported by a Targeted Research Grant from the Society of Pediatric Psychology. Christopher Crick’s research was partially supported by National Science Foundation awards, specifically grant numbers 1539070 and 1527828. The current study fully complies with the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics.
C.C.C.: obtained funding for the project; conceptualized the work; provided substantial original writing; conducted the statistical and methodological design; conducted the statistical analyses; collected the data; editing the work; and supervised/mentored C.M.B., T.B.M., & A.E.N. C.M.B., T.B.M., & A.E.N.: collaborated in the conceptualization of the work, provided substantial original writing, and edited the work. C.J.C.: collaborated in the conceptualization of the work, designed the PETE app and oversaw its use, and edited the work.
The first author held a Targeted Research Grant from the Society of Pediatric Psychology during the drafting of this manuscript. The last author held grants from the National Science Foundation during the writing of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Actigraph, wActi. (2005). Sleep-BT and ActiLife desktop software user’s manual. Pensacola: ActiGraph.Google Scholar
- Aggio, D., Wallace, K., Boreham, N., Shankar, A., Steptoe, A., & Hamer, M. (2017). Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79(7), 792–797. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000485.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Brannon, E. E., Cushing, C. C., Crick, C. J., & Mitchell, T. B. (2016). The promise of wearable sensors and ecological momentary assessment measures for dynamical systems modeling in adolescents: a feasibility and acceptability study. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 6(4), 558–565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-016-0442-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cannon, M. F., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Cognitive biases in childhood anxiety disorders: do interpretive and judgment biases distinguish anxious youth from their non-anxious peers? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(7), 751–758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): Physical Activity Monitor (PAM) procedures manual. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_11_12/Physical_Activity_Monitor_Manual.pdf accessed May 31st, 2018
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Facts about physical activity. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/facts.html accessed May 31st, 2018
- Cooper, Z., Fairburn, C.G., & Hawker, D.M. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obesity: a clinician’s guide. Guilford Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Cushing, C. C., Mitchell, T. B., Bejarano, C. M., Walters, R. W., Crick, C. J., & Noser, A. E. (2017). Bidirectional associations between psychological states and physical activity in adolescents: a mHealth pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(5), 559–568. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsw099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva, M. A., Singh-Manoux, A., Brunner, E. J., Kaffashian, S., Shipley, M. J., Kivimäki, M., & Nabi, H. (2012). Bidirectional association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the Whitehall II study. European Journal of Epidemiology, 27(7), 537–546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-012-9692-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jerstad, S. J., Boutelle, K. N., Ness, K. K., & Stice, E. (2010). Prospective reciprocal relations between physical activity and depression in female adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 268–272. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018793.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kohl, 3rd, H. W., Craig, C. L., Lambert, E. V., Inoue, S., Alkandari, J. R., & Leetongin, G., Lancet Physical Activity Series Working, G. (2012). The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. Lancet, 380(9838), 294–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McAuley, E., & Blissmer, B. (2000). Self-efficacy determinants and consequences of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 28(2), 85–88.Google Scholar
- McNair, P. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1981). POMS manual. 2nd ed San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
- Noser, A. E., Cushing, C. C., McGrady, M. E., Amaro, C. M., & Huffhines, L. P. (2017). Adaptive intervention designs in pediatric psychology: the promise of sequential multiple assignment randomized trials of pediatric interventions. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 5, 170–188.8.131.52/cpp0000185.Google Scholar
- O’Reilly, G. A., Huh, J., Schembre, S. M., Tate, E. B., Pentz, M. A., & Dunton, G. (2015). Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children. Appetite, 92, 314–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lenhart, A. (2015). Teens, social media & technology overview 2015. http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/. accessed May 31st, 2018
- Poole, L., Steptoe, A., Wawrzyniak, A. J., Bostock, S., Mitchell, E. S., & Hamer, M. (2011). Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women. Psychophysiology, 48(8), 1165–1172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01184.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Posner, J., Russell, J.A., & Peterson, B.S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approachto affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 715–734. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050340.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sothern, M. S., Loftin, M., Suskind, R. M., Udall, J. N., & Blecker, U. (1999). The health benefits of physical activity in children and adolescents: implications for chronic disease prevention. European Journal of Pediatrics, 158(4), 271–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004310051070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stavrakakis, N., de Jonge, P., Ormel, J., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2012). Bidirectional prospective associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms. The TRAILS Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(5), 503–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reichert, M., Tost, H., Reinhard, I., Schlotz, W., Zipf, A., Salize, H. J., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2017). Exercise versus nonexercise activity: e-diaries unravel distinct effects on mood. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(4), 763–773. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2018), National Institutes of Health, Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program. About the precision medicine cohort program. https://allofus.nih.gov/ accessed May 31st, 2018
- World Health Organization (2015). Physical activity fact sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs385/en/. accessed May 31st, 2018