Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 2562–2573 | Cite as

Historical Examination of United States Intentional Mass School Shootings in the 20th and 21st Centuries: Implications for Students, Schools, and Society

  • Antonis KatsiyannisEmail author
  • Denise K. Whitford
  • Robin Parks Ennis
Original Paper


The deadliest U.S. school shooting to date, occurring on February 14, 2018 at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida serves as a powerful reminder that school violence is ever present. Addressing school violence, however, has been an elusive endeavor. The purpose of this review is to provide a historical examination of United States intentional mass school shootings in the 20th and 21st centuries. In addition, implications for students, schools, and society are discussed in light of policy and legislative initiatives as well as school-based prevention and intervention tiered models of support, such as positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS).


Shooting Guns Violence Schools PBIS Mental health 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonis Katsiyannis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Denise K. Whitford
    • 2
  • Robin Parks Ennis
    • 3
  1. 1.Clemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  2. 2.Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.University of AlabamaBirminghamUSA

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