Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 2149–2160 | Cite as

The Development, Pilot, and Process Evaluation of a Parent Mental Health Literacy Intervention Through Community Sports Clubs

  • Diarmuid HurleyEmail author
  • Mark S. Allen
  • Christian Swann
  • Anthony D. Okely
  • Stewart A. Vella
Original Paper

Abstract

The mental health literacy of parents may be critical in facilitating positive child and adolescent mental health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop, pilot, and evaluate a targeted parent mental health literacy intervention through community sports clubs. Sixty six parents (Mage = 44.86 ± 5.2 years) participated in either a brief mental health literacy intervention workshop delivered through community sporting clubs (n = 42) or a community-matched control group (n = 24). Participants’ mental health literacy was assessed at baseline, post-intervention and at 1 month follow-up. A mixed methods process evaluation was conducted with intervention participants to determine the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Participants in the experimental group showed greater increases in depression literacy, anxiety literacy, knowledge of help seeking options and confidence to assist an adolescent experiencing a mental health disorder, compared to those in the control group. Post-intervention changes in the experimental group were maintained at 1 month follow-up. A mixed methods process evaluation revealed that parents found the intervention content engaging, relevant to their needs, and practically useful in terms of actively supporting adolescent mental health. Findings provide evidence that a brief, targeted intervention through community sports clubs might be a particularly useful method of improving parental mental health literacy and facilitating positive youth mental health outcomes.

Keywords

Adolescence Family Mixed-methods Well-being Youth sport. 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Movember Foundation [The Australian Mental Health Initiative 2014].

Author Contributions

D.H. designed and executed the study, ran the data analysis and wrote the paper. M.S.A. collaborated with the design, writing and editing of the study. C.S. collaborated with the design, writing and editing of the study. A.D.O. reviewed a draft of the paper. S.A.V. collaborated with the design, writing and editing of the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee of the University of Wollongong, Australia and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Anderson, R. J., & Pierce, D. (2012). Assumptions associated with mental health literacy training–Insights from initiatives in rural Australia. Advances in Mental Health, 10, 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anwar-McHenry, J., Donovan, R. J., Jalleh, G., & Laws, A. (2012). Impact evaluation of the act-belong-commit mental health promotion campaign. Journal of Public Mental Health, 11(4), 186–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Information paper. An introduction to Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) 2006. Canberra: ABS. Catalogue no. 2039.0.Google Scholar
  4. Bapat, S., Jorm, A., & Lawrence, K. (2009). Evaluation of a mental health literacy training program for junior sporting clubs. Australasian Psychiatry, 17(6), 475–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brijnath, B., Protheroe, J., Mahtani, K. R., & Antoniades, J. (2016). Do web-based mental health literacy interventions improve the mental health literacy of adult consumers? Results from a systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(6), e165.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5463.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Practice, 39(3), 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dietz, D. K., Cook, R. F., Billings, D. W., & Hendrickson, A. (2009). A web-based mental health program: reaching parents at work. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(4), 488–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2009). Parents’ perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(4), 444–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., & McDonough, M. H. (2015). Early socialization of parents through organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dorsch, T. E., King, M. Q., Dunn, C. R., Osai, K. V., & Tulane, S. (2017). The impact of evidence-based parent education in organized youth sport: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 29(2), 199–214.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2016.1194909..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eime, R. M., Young, J. A., Harvey, J. T., Charity, M. J., & Payne, W. R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: Informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer, J. A., Kelly, C. M., Kitchener, B. A., & Jorm, A. F. (2013). Development of guidelines for adults on how to communicate with adolescents about mental health problems and other sensitive topics. SAGE Open, 3(4), 2158244013516769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frauenholtz, S., Conrad-Hiebner, A., & Mendenhall, A. N. (2015). Children’s mental health providers’ perceptions of mental health literacy among parents and caregivers. Journal of Family Social Work, 18(1), 40–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gilbo, C., Knight, T., Lewis, A. J., Toumbourou, J. W., & Bertino, M. D. (2015). A qualitative evaluation of an intervention for parents of adolescents with mental disorders: the parenting challenging adolescents seminar. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(9), 2532–2543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorber, S. C., & Tremblay, M. S. (2016). Self-report and direct measures of health: bias and implications. In R.J. Shephard & C. Tudor-Locke (Eds.) The objective monitoring of physical activity: contributions of accelerometry to epidemiology, exercise science and rehabilitation (pp. 369–376). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Goldney, R. D., Eckert, K. A., Hawthorne, G., & Taylor, A. W. (2010). Changes in the prevalence of major depression in an Australian community sample between 1998 and 2008. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(10), 901–910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., Jorm, A. F., Evans, K., & Groves, C. (2004). Effect of web-based depression literacy and cognitive–behavioural therapy interventions on stigmatising attitudes to depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 185(4), 342–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2010). Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 10(1), 113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-10-113.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., & Brewer, J. L. (2012). A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 12(1), 81–92.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-12-81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., Christensen, H., Mackinnon, A., Calear, A. L., & Parsons, A., et al. (2012). Internet-based interventions to promote mental health help-seeking in elite athletes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), e69.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1864.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hadlaczky, G., Hökby, S., Mkrtchian, A., Carli, V., & Wasserman, D. (2014). Mental Health First Aid is an effective public health intervention for improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour: a meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(4), 467–475.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.924910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Harwood, C. G., & Knight, C. J. (2015). Parenting in youth sport: a position paper on parenting expertise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 24–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hurley, D., Swann, C., Allen, M. S., Okely, A. D., & Vella, S. A. (2017). The role of community sports clubs in adolescent mental health: the perspectives of adolescent males’ parents. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9(3), 372–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ingoldsby, E. M. (2010). Review of interventions to improve family engagement and retention in parent and child mental health programs. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(5), 629–645.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., Christensen, H., Rodgers, B., & Pollitt, P. (1997). Mental health literacy: A survey of the public’s ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. Medical Journal of Australia, 166(4), 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jorm, A. F., Wright, A., & Morgan, A. J. (2007). Beliefs about appropriate first aid for young people with mental disorders: findings from an Australian national survey of youth and parents. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1(1), 61–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jorm, A. F., & Wright, A. (2007). Beliefs of young people and their parents about the effectiveness of interventions for mental disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 656–666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Jorm, A. F. (2012). Mental health literacy: empowering the community to take action for better mental health. American Psychologist, 67(3), 231–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kelly, C. M., Mithen, J. M., Fischer, J. A., Kitchener, B. A., Jorm, A. F., & Lowe, A., et al. (2011). Youth mental health first aid: a description of the program and an initial evaluation. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 5(1), 4–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Kessler, R. C., Andrews, G., Colpe, L. J., Hiripi, E., Mroczek, D. K., & Normand, S. L., et al. (2002). Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32(6), 959–976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kieling, C., Baker-Henningham, H., Belfer, M., Conti, G., Ertem, I., & Omigbodun, O., et al. (2011). Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action. The Lancet, 378(9801), 1515–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kutcher, S., Wei, Y., & Coniglio, C. (2016). Mental health literacy past, present, and future. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(3), 154–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lawrence, D, Johnson, S, Hafekost, J, Boterhoven De Haan, K, Sawyer, M. & Ainley, J. et al. (2015). The mental health of children and adolescents: report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.Canberra: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  35. Liddle, S. K., Deane, F. P., & Vella, S. A. (2016). Addressing mental health through sport: a review of sporting organizations’ websites. Early Intervention in Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.12337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Mason, R. J., Hart, L. M., Rossetto, A., & Jorm, A. F. (2015). Quality and predictors of adolescents׳ first aid intentions and actions towards a peer with a mental health problem. Psychiatry Research, 228(1), 31–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.03.036.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: a philosophic and practical guide. Lewes: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mendenhall, A. N., & Frauenholtz, S. (2015). Predictors of mental health literacy among parents of youth diagnosed with mood disorders. Child & Family Social Work, 20(3), 300–309.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mendenhall, A. (2012). Predictors of service utilization among youth diagnosed with mood disorders. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 21(4), 603–611.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9512-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morgan, A. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2009). Self-help strategies that are helpful for sub-threshold depression: a Delphi consensus study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115(1), 196–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. O’ Connor, M., &Casey, L. (2015). The Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS): a new scale based measure of mental health literacy. Psychiatry Research, 229(1–2), 511–516.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pescosolido, B. A., Jensen, P. S., Martin, J. K., Perry, B. L., Olafsdottir, S., & Fettes, D. (2008). Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the national stigma study-children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(3), 339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: a meta‐analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Reavley, N. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2012). Young people’s stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: findings from an Australian national survey. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(12), 1033–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rickwood, D. J., Deane, F. P., Wilson, C. J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Young people’s help-seeking for mental health problems. The Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 4(3), 218–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rickwood, D. J., Deane, F. P., & Wilson, C. J. (2007). When and how do young people seek professional help for mental health problems. Medical Journal of Australia, 187(7 Suppl), S35–S39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Smith, B., & McGannon, K. R. (2017). Developing rigor in qualitative research: problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357.
  48. Snell-Johns, J., Mendez, J. L., & Smith, B. H. (2004). Evidence-based solutions for overcoming access barriers, decreasing attrition, and promoting change with underserved families. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(1), 19–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sparkes, A. C., & Smith, B. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport, exercise and health: From process to product. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Staudt, M. (2007). Treatment engagement with caregivers of at-risk children: Gaps in research and conceptualization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(2), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Story, C. R., Kirkwood, A. D., Parker, S., & Weller, B. E. (2016). Evaluation of the Better Todays/Better Tomorrows Youth Suicide Prevention Program: increasing mental health literacy in rural communities. Best Practices in Mental Health, 12(1), 14–25.Google Scholar
  52. Tremblay, M. S., Barnes, J. D., González, S. A., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Onywera, V. O., & Reilly, J. J., Global Matrix 2.0 Research Team.. (2016). GlobalMatrix 2.0: report card grades on the physical activity of children and youth comparing 38 countries. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(11), S343–S366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Vella, S. A., Cliff, D. P., Magee, C. A., & Okely, A. D. (2015). Associations between sports participation and psychological difficulties during childhood: a two-year follow up. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(3), 304–309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Yap, M. B. H., Pilkington, P. D., Ryan, S. M., Kelly, C. M., & Jorm, A. F. (2014). Parenting strategies for reducing the risk of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders: a Delphi consensus study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 67–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diarmuid Hurley
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mark S. Allen
    • 1
  • Christian Swann
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anthony D. Okely
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stewart A. Vella
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.Early Start Research InstituteUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.School of EducationUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations