Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1786–1793 | Cite as

Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Efficacy Scale among Parents during the Postnatal Period in Singapore

  • Shefaly ShoreyEmail author
  • Wenru Wang
  • Yen Yen Yang
  • Piyanee Yobas
Original Paper


Parenting self-efficacy is one of the important determinants that assists smooth transition to parenthood and has an impact on the parent–child relationship. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Parenting Efficacy Scale (PES) among multi-ethnic parents in Singapore. A descriptive correlational repeated research design was adopted to test the performance measurement among 250 fathers and mothers (125 each). To examine the test–retest reliability of the PES, 211 participants (106 fathers and 105 mothers) were retested 4 weeks after the first test. Demographics such as age, ethnicity, monthly income, gender, and education were used to test the construct validity of the PES. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the single factor structure for the PES, fitting both parents. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test–retest reliability with Cronbach’s α coefficients of 0.91 and 0.75, respectively and intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.70 and 0.71 for fathers and mothers, respectively. The PES showed good content validity with a scale content validity index of 0.85. Parenting self-efficacy was predicted by age, ethnicity, and monthly household income. The PES is a psychometrically acceptable instrument for measuring parenting self-efficacy among multi-ethnic parents in Singapore. Hence, it can be used routinely to assess parental self-efficacy during the postnatal period.


Newborn Parenting self-efficacy Postnatal period Reliability and validity 


Author Contributions

S.S. designed and executed the study and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. W.W. assisted in the preliminary data analysis and critical review of the manuscript. Y.Y. assisted in the data collection and wrote part of the paper. P.Y. finalized the data analysis and edited the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics Statement

Ethics approval was obtained from the Domain Specific Review Board National Healthcare Group (DSRB NHG: Ref No: 2015/01250) before the data collection. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant and voluntary participation was ensured in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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