Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1870–1880 | Cite as

Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Outcomes among African Americans and European Americans

  • Emma G. HooperEmail author
  • Qiong Wu
  • Seulki Ku
  • Micah Gerhardt
  • Xin Feng
Original Paper


Mothers’ emotion socialization practices are very important for children’s later outcomes; however, we know very little about how these practices may lead to different outcomes for European American (EA) and African American (AA) children. In the current study, maternal emotion socialization practices were investigated in relation to child emotion-related outcomes in 122 pairs of mothers and preschool-age children, and differences in associations were examined for EA and AA families. Mothers were assessed for their expressions of positive emotion with their child and their responses to their child’s negative emotions, including support of sadness/fear and magnification of anger, when children were 3. Children were assessed for their expression of positive emotion with their mother and their internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors when they were 4. When ethnicity was included as a moderator, results revealed that when AA mothers expressed more positive emotion, their children were also more positive 1 year later. Additionally, as AA mothers provided greater support for their children’s sadness/fear, these children tended to have fewer later internalizing problems. Finally, when AA mothers responded with more magnification of their children’s anger, these children tended to have greater internalizing and externalizing problems 1 year later. These associations were not found for EA families. Results highlighted differential effects based on the type of support provided by mothers and the role that mothers played in encouraging or suppressing their child’s expressions. The overall findings highlight the need to consider maternal emotion socialization from a culturally-informed perspective.


Emotion socialization Ethnicity Response to emotion Emotion expression Problem behaviors 


Author Contributions

E.G.H.: designed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. Q.W.: assisted with data collection and writing the manuscript. S.K.: assisted with data collection and editing the manuscript. M.G.: assisted with data collection and editing the manuscript. X.F.: assisted with study design, analyzing the data, and editing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Ohio State University Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Mothers provided assent for child participation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emma G. Hooper
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qiong Wu
    • 1
  • Seulki Ku
    • 1
  • Micah Gerhardt
    • 1
  • Xin Feng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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