Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1957–1967 | Cite as

Perceptions of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Seminars among Parents Experiencing Homelessness

  • Mary E. HaskettEmail author
  • Jenna Armstrong
  • Sarah C. Neal
  • Kristen Aldianto
Original Paper


Positive parenting has been identified as a potential protective factor for vulnerable children who experience homelessness; unfortunately, many parents experiencing homelessness struggle to provide the consistent warmth and appropriate discipline their children need. This study was designed to examine the opinions of parents residing in shelters about a brief evidence-based parenting seminar, Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. We used a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design using quantitative and qualitative methods. In phase I, we analyzed extant quantitative data on parents’ satisfaction with Triple P seminars via a survey administered following 66 seminars. Results showed the 284 sheltered parents’ ratings of satisfaction were even more positive than ratings of a convenience sample of 128 parents who attended Triple P seminars delivered in agencies that served parents having parenting challenges. In phase II, we explored sheltered parents’ views more deeply via qualitative data derived from 16 parents who attended a focus group immediately following three seminars. Results were integrated across methods and indicated that parents held generally positive views of Triple P, but when given the opportunity to discuss the seminars, they recommended many revisions to the content and some revisions to the methods of delivery. Most of their suggestions were made in response to the specific parenting challenges they faced while parenting in a crowded, highly structured shelter environment. Recommendations for adapting seminars for parents living in shelters and suggestions for future research are provided.


Triple P Parenting intervention Shelters Family homelessness Parent perceptions 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Wake County Public School System for sharing the de-identified extant data.

Author Contributions

M.E.H. designed the study, conducted focus groups, assisted with analyses, and co-wrote the manuscript. J.A. managed the data, assisted with analyses and co-wrote the manuscript. S.C. developed the focus group data coding system, led coding of the focus group data, and co-wrote the manuscript. K.A. conducted several of the seminars and reviewed drafts of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the focus groups in the study; other data were extant and de-identified, so signed consent was not required. All procedures were reviewed and approved by the NC State University IRB.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary E. Haskett
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jenna Armstrong
    • 1
  • Sarah C. Neal
    • 1
  • Kristen Aldianto
    • 2
  1. 1.North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Wake County Public School SystemCaryUSA

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