Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1774–1785 | Cite as

The Emotion Regulation Strategies of Adolescents and their Parents: An Experience Sampling Study

Original Paper

Abstract

Parents are the main socialization agents in the development of emotion regulation (ER). In this study, we evaluated adolescents’ and their respective parents’ perspectives about their use of two ER strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in daily life. In addition, we evaluated the within-family associations between adolescents’ and their parents’ use of strategies. We controlled for adolescents’ gender and age and the perceived quality of their relationships with their parents (mothers and fathers). The sample consisted of 33 12- to 18-year-old adolescent–father–mother triads, totaling 99 participants. Parents and adolescents reported their use of ER strategies in response to eight random prompts throughout the day, by means of the experience sampling method for 1 week. Participants provided 4082 reports on their momentary experiences. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the repeated daily assessments. The significant association between parents’ and adolescents’ use of ER strategies was specific to mother–adolescent dyads. The significant association between adolescents’ and their mothers’ ER strategies varied as a function of the adolescents’ age and the quality of their relationship with their mothers according to adolescents’ reports, but not as a function of adolescent gender. These findings suggest that mothers have a role in their adolescents’ emotion regulation in a developmental period characterized by autonomy from parental guidance.

Keywords

Emotion regulation strategies Adolescents Parents Experience sampling method Multilevel modeling 

Notes

Author Contributions

E.S.: performed the data collection, design the study, participated in the data analysis, in the interpretation of the results, and wrote the manuscript. T.F.: was responsible for the design and coordination of the study; supervised the research process and critically reviewed all the manuscript. S.F.: participated in the data analysis, in the interpretation of results and critically revised the statistical procedures and results of the study.

Funding

This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through a Doctoral grant (SFRH/BD/90581/2012) to Eliana Silva, supported by national funds of the Ministry of Education and Science and the European Social Fund through the Human Capital Operational Program. This study was conducted at Psychology Research Centre (UID/PSI/01662/2013), University of Minho, and supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education through national funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato, P.R., King, V., & Thorsen, M.L. (2016). Parent-child relationships in stepfather families and adolescent adjustment: a latent class analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78, 482–497.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bariola, E., Hughes, E.K., & Gullone, E. (2012). Relationships between parent and child emotion regulation: a brief report. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 443–448.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9497-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baxter, R.J., & Bunton, J.E. (2011). Capturing affect via the experience sampling method: prospects for accounting information systems researchers. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 12, 90–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accinf.2010.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brans, K., Koval, P., Verduyn, P., Lim, Y.L., & Kuppens, P. (2013). The regulation of negative and positive affect in daily life. Emotion, 13(5), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bridges, L.J., Denham, S.A., & Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75(2), 340–345.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00675.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brockman, R., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., & Kashdan, T. (2016). Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 1–23 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2016.1218926.Google Scholar
  8. Buckholdt, K.E., Parra, G.R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 324–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9768-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cain, A.E., Depp, C.A., & Jeste, D.V. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment in aging research: a critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, 987–996.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.01.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cassano, M., Perry‐Parrish, C., & Zeman, J. (2007). Influence of gender on parental socialization of children’s sadness regulation. Social Development, 16, 210–231.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00381.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen, T.C., Barrett, L.F., Bliss-Moreau, E., Lebo, K., & Kaschub, C. (2003). A practical guide to experience-sampling procedures. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 53–78.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023609306024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cole, P.M., Martin, S.E., & Dennis, T.A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75(2), 317–333.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00673.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience sampling method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 526–536.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198709000-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cui, L., Morris, A.S., Criss, M.M., Houltberg, B.J., & Silk, J.S. (2014). Parental psychological control and adolescent adjustment: the role of adolescent emotion regulation. Parenting, 14, 47–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2014.880018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Denny, B. T., Silvers, J. A., & Ochsner, K. N. (2009). How we heal what we don’t want to feel: The functional neural architecture of emotion regulation. In A. M. Kring & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: a transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment (pp. 59–87). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dittus, P.J. & Jaccard, J. (2000). Adolescents’ perceptions of maternal disapproval of sex: relationship to sexual outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26(4), 268–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(99)00096-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenberg, N., & Morris, A.S. (2002). Children’s emotion-related regulation. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 30, 190–230.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Morris, A.S., Fabes, R.A., Cumberland, A., & Reiser, M., et al. (2003). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children’s regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39, 3–19.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. English, T., Lee, I.A., John, O.P., & Gross, J.J. (2016). Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: the role of social context and goals. Motivation and Emotion, 1–13. (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-016-9597-z.Google Scholar
  20. Farmer, A.S., & Kashdan, T.B. (2012). Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41(2), 152–162.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2012.666561.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, C.D., & To, M.L. (2012). Using experience sampling methodology in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(7), 865–877.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2010). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: a comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1659–1669.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garnefski, N., Legerstee, J., Kraaij, V., Van Den Kommer, T., & Teerds, J.A.N. (2002). Cognitive coping strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety: a comparison between adolescents and adults. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 603–611.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2002.0507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gross, J.J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gullone, E., Hughes, E.K., King, N.J., & Tonge, B. (2010). The normative development of emotion regulation strategy use in children and adolescents: a two year follow-up study. Journal of Child and Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 567–574.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02183.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ-CA): a psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24, 409–417.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A., Garrett, S. B., Kinukawa, A., Lippman, L., & Michelsen, E. (2003). Psychometric analyses of the parent–adolescent relationship scale in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—1997. Indicators of Positive Development Conference (pp. 1–31). Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  30. Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A., Garrett, S. B., Kinukawa, A., Lippman, L., & Michelsen, E. (2005). The parent-adolescent relationship scale. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 183–202). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Han, Z.R., & Shaffer, A. (2013). The relation of parental emotion dysregulation to children’s psychopathology symptoms: the moderating role of child emotion dysregulation. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 591–601.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0353-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hektner, J., Schmidt, J. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Experience sampling: measuring the quality of everyday life. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hutt, R.L., Wang, Q., & Evans, G.W. (2009). Relations of parent–youth interactive exchanges to adolescent socioemotional development. Social Development, 18, 785–797.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00518.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. John, O.P., & Gross, J.J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301–1334.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kashdan, T.B., & Nezlek, J.B. (2012). Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1523–1535.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212454549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kashdan, T.B., & Steger, M.F. (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety an experience-sampling assessment of positive emotions, positive events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science, 17(2), 120–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A.E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P.D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R.B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16, 326–342.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Larson, R. (1989). Beeping children and adolescents: a method for studying time use and daily experience. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 511–530.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02139071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Larson, R.W., Richards, M.H., Sims, B., & Dworkin, J. (2001). How urban African American young adolescents spend their time: time budgets for locations, activities, and companionship. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 565–597.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010422017731.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Machado, C, Gomes, J., & Freire, T. (2009). The psycho beeper. Braga: Universidade do Minho.Google Scholar
  41. Maes, I.H., Delespaul, P.A., Peters, M.L., White, M.P., van Horn, Y., Schruers, K., & Joore, M. (2015). Measuring health-related quality of life by experiences: the experience sampling method. Value in Health, 18, 44–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2014.10.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McDowell, D.J., Kim, M., O’neil, R., & Parke, R.D. (2002). Children’s emotional regulation and social competence in middle childhood: the role of maternal and paternal interactive style. Marriage and Family Review, 34, 345–364.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v34n03_07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McRae, K., Gross, J.J., Weber, J., Robertson, E.R., Sokol-Hessner, P., & Ray, R.D., et al. (2012). The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(1), 11–22.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsr093.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Morris, A.S., Silk, J.S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S.S., & Robinson, L.R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 361–388.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Nezlek, J.B., & Kuppens, P. (2008). Regulation positive and negative emotions in daily life. Journal of Personality, 76, 561–579.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00496.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Opitz, P.C., Cavanagh, S.R., & Urry, H.L. (2015). Uninstructed emotion regulation choice in four studies of cognitive reappraisal. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 455–464.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pe, M.L., Raes, F., Koval, P., Brans, K., Verduyn, P., & Kuppens, P. (2013). Interference resolution moderates the impact of rumination and reappraisal on affective experiences in daily life. Cognition and Emotion, 27(3), 492–501.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2012.719489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & R. Core Team (2014). nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-118, http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme.
  49. Raudenbush, S.W., & Bryk, A.S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis methods. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  50. Reis, H. T. (2012). Why researchers should think “real-world”: A conceptual rationale. In M. R. Mehl & T. S. Conner (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for studying daily life (pp. 3–21). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Robinson, M.D., & Clore, G.L. (2002). Belief and feeling: evidence for an accessibility model of emotional self-report. Psychological Bulletin, 128(6), 934–960.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.6.934.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schneiders, J., Nicolson, N.A., Berkhof, J., Feron, F.J., de Vries, M.W., & van Os, J. (2007). Mood in daily contexts: relationship with risk in early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 697–722.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2007.00543.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scollon, C.N., Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling method: promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 5–34.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023605205115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silk, J.S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A.S. (2003). Adolescent’s emotion regulation in daily life: links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 6(74), 1869–1880.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00643.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Silva, E., Freire, T., & Faria, S. (2017). Adolescents’ psychopathology and positive functioning: the role of emotion regulation and parental functioning. Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  56. Soto, J.A., Perez, C.R., Kim, Y.-H., Lee, E.A., & Minnick, M.R. (2011). Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese. Emotion, 11(6), 1450–1455.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Teixeira, A., Silva, E., Tavares, D., & Freire, T. (2015). Portuguese validation of the emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ-CA): relations with self-esteem and life satisfaction. Child Indicators Research, 8(3), 605–621.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-014-9266-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thompson, R.A. (1991). Emotion regulation and emotional development. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 269–307.https://doi.org/1040-726X/91/1200-0269506.50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Troy, A.S., Shallcross, A.J., & Mauss, I.B. (2013). A person-by-situation approach to emotion regulation: cognitive reappraisal can either help or hurt, depending on the context. Psychological Science, 24, 2505–2514.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613496434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Vaz, F., & Martins, C. (2009). Diferenciação e regulação emocional na idade adulta: tradução e validação de dois instrumentos de avaliação para a população portuguesa [Emotional differentiation and regulation in adulthood: translation and validation of two instruments to the Portuguese population]. Braga: Dissertação de mestrado não publicada, Universidade do Minho.Google Scholar
  61. Wenze, S.J., & Miller, I.W. (2010). Use of ecological momentary assessment in mood disorders research. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(6), 794–804.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Psychology, School of PsychologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and Applications, School of SciencesUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations