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Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 821–831 | Cite as

Relationship of Aggression to Anxiety, Depression, Anger, and Empathy in Hong Kong

  • Annis L. C. Fung
  • Lawrence H. GersteinEmail author
  • Yuichung Chan
  • Jackie Engebretson
Original Paper

Abstract

In the United States, a distinction between proactive (deliberate aggressive behavior aimed at influencing others) and reactive (defensive response to provocation) aggression has been documented. Further, investigators have discovered an association between cognitive, social, and emotional variables and these two types of aggression. This study investigated this relationship with 251 (males = 170; females = 81) proactive and reactive aggressive Hong Kong secondary students (M age = 13.07; SD = 1.38). Canonical analyses revealed proactive aggression was negatively related to transposing oneself into feelings and actions of fictional characters, feeling warmth and concern for others, and feeling discomfort in reaction to others’ emotions. Reactive aggression, in contrast, was positively associated with experiencing and expressing anger without specific provocation, expressing anger when provoked, suppressing anger, expressing anger towards others or objects, and feeling anxiety-depression. Implications to address the aggression of students in Hong Kong and elsewhere are discussed.

Keywords

Aggression Anxiety Depression Empathy Hong Kong 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annis L. C. Fung
    • 2
  • Lawrence H. Gerstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuichung Chan
    • 3
  • Jackie Engebretson
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Peace and Conflict StudiesBall State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.City University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong
  3. 3.Ball State UniversityMuncieUSA

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