Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 372–385 | Cite as

Enhancing Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation Via Mindful Yoga

  • Rachel A. RazzaEmail author
  • Dessa Bergen-Cico
  • Kimberly Raymond
Original Paper


This study evaluated the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based yoga intervention in promoting self-regulation among preschool children (3–5 years old). Twenty-nine children (16 intervention and 13 control) participated in the yearlong study that used a quasi experimental pretest/posttest treatment and control design. The mindful yoga intervention was implemented regularly by the classroom teacher for the treatment group. Treatment and control participants completed evaluations that assessed multiple indices of children’s self-regulation (i.e., attention, delay of gratification and inhibitory control) using a combination of parent report and direct assessments. Results from the direct assessments indicated significant effects of the intervention across all three indices of self-regulation. There was also some evidence that the children who were most at risk of self-regulation dysfunction benefited the most from the intervention. Implications of this study for current practice in early childhood education are discussed along with possibilities for future research in this area.


Mindfulness Yoga Self-regulation Executive function Effortful control 


  1. Achenbach, T. M., McConnaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
  3. Bergman Nutley, S., Söderqvist, S., Bryde, S., Thorell, L. B., Humphreys, K., & Klingberg, T. (2011). Gains in fluid intelligence after training non-verbal reasoning in 4-year-old children: A controlled, randomized study. Developmental Science, 14(3), 591–601. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01022.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Jones, L. L. (2009). Executive functions after age 5: Changes and correlates. Developmental Review, 29, 180–200.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 327–336.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biegel, G. M., & Brown, K. W. (2012). Assessing the efficacy of an adapted in-class mindfulness-based training program for school-age children: A pilot study [White paper]. Retrieved from
  7. Biegel, G. M., Brown, K. W., Shapiro, S. L., & Schubert, C. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 77, 855–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Blair, C., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2008). Executive functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 821–843.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierman, K. L., & Smoot, D. L. (1991). Linking family characteristics with poor peer relations: The mediating role of conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 341–356.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birdee, G. S., Yeh, G. Y., Wayne, P. M., Phillips, R. S., Davis, R. B., & Gardiner, P. (2009). Clinical applications of yoga for the pediatric population: A systematic review. Academic Pediatrics, 9, 212–220.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, D. S., Milam, J., & Sussman, S. (2008). Sitting-meditation interventions among youth: A review of treatment efficacy. Pediatrics, 124, 532–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blair, C. (2002). School readiness as propensity for engagement: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of child functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111–127. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.57.2.111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blair, C. (2010). Stress and the development of self-regulation in context. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 181–188.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blair, C., & Dennis, T. (2010). An optimal balance: Emotion-cognition integration in context. In S. Calkins & M. Bell (Eds.), Child development at the intersection of cognition and emotion (pp. 17–36). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair, C., & Ursache, A. (2011). A bidirectional theory of executive functions and self-regulation. In R. Baumeister & K. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (2nd ed., pp. 300–320). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the Mind: The Vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education/Merrill.Google Scholar
  18. Brock, L. L., Rimm-Kaufman, S., Nathanson, L., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). The contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ executive function to children’s academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke, C. A. (2009). Mindfulness-based approaches with children and adolescents: A preliminary review of current research in an emergent field. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 133–144. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9282-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulated cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4(6), 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multi-level approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 477–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch, S. (2010). Emotion regulation and executive functioning in early development: Integrated mechanisms of control supporting adaptive functioning. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.), Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition (pp. 37–58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Claxton, L. J. (2004). Individual differences in executive functioning and theory of mind: An investigation of inhibitory control and planning ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87, 299–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clark, C. A. C., Sheffield, T. D., Wiebe, S. A., & Espy, K. A. (2013). Longitudinal associations between executive control and developing mathematical competence in preschool boys and girls. Child Development, 84(2), 662–677. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01854.x.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parents’ mindfulness, child management skills, and relationship quality with their youth: Results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 203–217. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9304-8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Committee for Children. (2002). Second step: A violence prevention curriculum. Preschool/kindergarten-grade 9 trainer’s manual (3rd ed.). Seattle, WA: Committee for Children.Google Scholar
  27. Diamond, A. (2005). ADD (ADHD without hyperactivity), a neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from ADHD (with hyperactivity). Development and Psychopathology, 17, 807–825.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Diamond, A. (2012). Activities and programs that improve children’s executive functions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 335–341. doi: 10.1177/0963721412453722.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318(5855), 1387–1388. doi: 10.1126/science.1151148.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959–964. doi: 10.1126/science.1204529.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Diamond, A., & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I said and to “Do as I say, not as I do”. Developmental Psychology, 29, 315–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 259–282). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Evans, G. W., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73, 1238–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fabes, R., Martin, C. L., Hanish, L. D., Anders, M. C., & Madden-Derdich, D. A. (2003). Early school competence: The roles of sex-segregated play and effortful control. Developmental Psychology, 39(5), 848–858. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.5.848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flook, L., Smalley, S. L., Kitil, M. J., Dang, J., Cho, J., Kaiser-Greenland, S., et al. (2008). Mindful awareness practices improve executive function in preschool children. Poster session presented at the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society 6th Annual Conference, Worcester, MA.Google Scholar
  37. Flook, L., Smalley, S. L., Kitil, M. J., Galla, B. M., Kaiser-Greenland, S., Locke, J., et al. (2010). Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26, 70–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Galantino, M. L., Galbavy, R., & Quinn, L. (2008). Therapeutic effects of yoga for children: A systematic review of the literature. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 20, 66–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garabedian, H. (2008). Itsy bitsy yoga for toddlers and prescshoolers: 8 minute routines to help your child grow smarter, be happier and behave better. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  40. Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenberg, M. T., & Harris, A. R. (2012). Nurturing mindfulness in children and youth: Current state of research. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 161–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00215.x.
  42. Greenland, S. K. (2010). The mindful child: How to help your kid manage stress and become happier, kinder, and more compassionate. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  43. Greeson, J. M. (2009). Mindfulness research update: 2008. Complementary Health Practices Review, 14, 10–18.Google Scholar
  44. Hanh, T. N. (2011). Planting seeds: Practicing mindfulness with children. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  45. Harnett, P. H., & Dawe, S. (2012). The contribution of mindfulness-based therapies for children and families and a proposed conceptual integration. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(4), 195–208. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00643.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hester, R., & Garavan, H. (2004). Executive dysfunction in cocaine addiction: Evidence for discordant frontal, cingulated, and cerebellar activity. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 11017–11022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Higgins, E. T., & Spiegel, S. (2004). Promotion and prevention strategies for self-regulation: A motivated cognition perspective. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 171–187). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hongwanishkul, D., Happaney, K. R., Lee, W. S., & Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Assessment of hot and cool executive function in young children: Age-related changes and individual differences. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 617–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hooker, K. E., & Fodor, I. E. (2008). Teaching mindfulness to children. Gestalt Review, 12(1), 75–91.Google Scholar
  50. Ivanov, I., Schulz, K. P., London, E. D., & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Inhibitory control deficits in childhood and risk for substance use disorders: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34(3), 239–258. doi: 10.1080/00952990802013334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ladd, G. W., Birch, S. H., & Buhs, E. S. (1999). Children’s social and scholastic lives in kindergarten: Related spheres of influence? Child Development, 70(6), 1373–1400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.Google Scholar
  53. Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72(4), 1091–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kochanska, G., Murray, K., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 263–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kyte, Z. A., Goodyer, I. M., & Sahakian, B. J. (2005). Selected executive skills in adolescents with recent first episode major depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 995–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li-Grining, C. P. (2007). Effortful control among low-income preschoolers in three cities: Stability, change, and individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 208–221. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43, 947–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McClelland, M., Morrison, F. J., & Holmes, D. L. (2000). Children at risk for early academic problems: The role of learning-related social skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(3), 307–329. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mendelson, T., Greenberg, M. T., Dariotis, J. K., Gould, L. F., Rhoades, B. L., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a school-based mindfulness intervention for urban youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 985–994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsiky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS, 108, 2693–2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Napoli, M., Krech, P. K., & Holley, L. C. (2005). Mindfulness training for elementary school students: The Attention Academy. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21, 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K., Lawlor, M. S., & Thompson, K. C. (2012). Mindfulness and inhibitory control in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32(4), 565–588. doi: 10.1177/0272431611403741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45, 605–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Development of short and very short forms of the children’s behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87(1), 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Raver, C. C. (2004). Placing emotional self-regulation in sociocultural and socioeconomic contexts. Child Development, 75, 346–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Raver, C. C. (2012). Low-income children’s self-regulation in the classroom: Scientific inquiry for social change. American Psychologist, 67(8), 681–689. doi: 10.1037/a0030085.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C. P., Zhai, F., Bub, K., & Pressler, E. (2011). CSRP’s impact on low-income preschoolers’ pre-academic skills: Self-regulation and teacher-student relationships as two mediating mechanisms. Child Development, 82(1), 362–378.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Richardson, J. T. E. (2011). Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., & Pentz, M. A. (2006a). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 7, 91–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Riggs, N. R., Jahromi, L. B., Razza, R. P., Dillworth-Bart, J. E., & Mueller, U. (2006b). Executive function and the promotion of social-emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 300-309.Google Scholar
  74. Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter International Performance Scale—revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  75. Rothbart, M. K., & Ahadi, S. A. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, N. E. Eisenberg, W. E. Damon, & R. M. E. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99–166). Hoboken, NJ, US: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., & Posner, P. (2005). Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 14931–14936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rueda, M. R., Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Halparin, J. D., Gruber, D. B., Lercari, L. P., et al. (2004). Development of attentional networks in childhood. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1029–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Hyme, S. (2007). Educating the heart as well as the mind: Why social and emotional learning is critical for students’ school and life success. Education Canada, 47, 20–25.Google Scholar
  80. Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Stewart Lawlor, M. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre- and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1, 137–151. doi: 10.1007/s12671-101-0011-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Semple, R. J., Lee, J., Rosa, D., & Miller, L. F. (2009). A randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: Promoting mindful attention to enhance social-emotional resiliency in children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 218–229. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9301-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., & Peake, P. K. (1990). Predicting adolescent cognitive and self-regulatory competencies from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions. Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 978–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., et al. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 17152–17156. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707678104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tang, Y., Yang, L., Leve, L. D., & Harold, G. T. (2012). Improving executive function and its neurobiological mechanisms through a mindfulness-based intervention: Advances within the field of developmental neuroscience. Child Development Perspectives, 6(4), 361–366. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00250.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Nutley, S. B., Bohlin, G., & Klingberg, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science, 12(1), 106–113. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00745.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tominey, S. L., & McClelland, M. M. (2011). Red light, purple light: Findings from a randomized trial using circle time games to improve behavioral self-regulation in preschool. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 489–519. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2011.574258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 131–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. van der Oord, S., Bögels, S. M., & Peijnenburg, D. (2012). The effectiveness of mindfulness training for children with ADHD and mindful parenting for their parents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(1), 139–147. doi: 10.1007/s10826-011-9457-0.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window of prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wenig, M. (2003). YogaKids: Educating the whole child through yoga. New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori and Chang.Google Scholar
  91. Zelazo, P. D., & Lyons, K. E. (2012). The potential benefits of mindfulness training in early childhood: A developmental social cognitive neuroscience perspective. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 154–160. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00241.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 112–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00176.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel A. Razza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dessa Bergen-Cico
    • 2
  • Kimberly Raymond
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child and Family StudiesSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations