Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1172–1181 | Cite as

Risk Trajectories of Self-Destructiveness in Adolescence: Family Core Influences

  • Diana CruzEmail author
  • Isabel Narciso
  • Cícero Roberto Pereira
  • Daniel Sampaio
Original Paper

Abstract

The study of family factors, (namely, parenting, attachment and family functioning) that can either reduce or increase risk factors during adolescent development is crucial to the early identification of adolescents at risk for self-destructive thoughts and behaviors (SDTB). Altough several studies have highlighted the role of family factors, few have analysed the joint impact of parenting styles and attachment in SDT. This study aimed to: (1) to identify the dimensions of parenting styles and parental attachment that predict SDTB; (2) to determine the mediation effect of cohesion on the relation between these predictors and reports of SDTB; and (3) to analyze sex and age differences in the abovementioned process. Participants included 1,266 Portuguese adolescents with a mean age of 15.9 years. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that paternal and maternal rejection and paternal control were the most accurate predictors of SDTB, emphasizing their role as risk factors for maladaptive trajectories with reports of SDTB. Results clearly emphasized the relevancy of the fathers’ role in such maladaptive trajectories. Additionally, a mediation effect of cohesion and a moderation of sex were also found. This study highlights the importance of intervening with the family in preventive and therapeutic contexts regarding adolescents’ well-being and their relationship with parents.

Keywords

Adolescence Self-destruction Parenting Attachment Cohesion 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth self-report and the 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Adam, K. S., Sheldon-Keller, A. E., & West, M. (1996). Attachment organization and history of suicidal behavior in clinical adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 264–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apter, A. (2010). Suicidal behavior in adolescence. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55, 271–273.Google Scholar
  4. Aquilino, W. S., & Supple, A. J. (2001). Long-term effects of parenting practices during adolescence on well-being outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 289–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Au, A. C. Y., Lau, S., & Lee, M. T. Y. (2009). Suicide ideation and depression: The moderation effects of family cohesion and social self-concept. Adolescence, 44, 851–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ávila, M., Cabral, J., & Matos, P. M. (2012). Identity in university students: The role of parental and romantic attachment. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 133–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baetens, I., Claes, L., Muehlenkamp, L., Grietens, H., & Onghena, P. (2011). Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injurious behavior among Flemish adolescents: A web-survey. Archives of Suicide Research, 15, 56–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bostik, K. E., & Everall, R. D. (2006). In my mind in was alone: Suicidal adolescents’ perceptions of attachment relationships. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 28, 269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boxer, P. (2010). Variations in risk and treatment factors among adolescents engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm in an inpatient sample. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 470–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng, Y., Tao, M., Riley, L., Kann, L., Ye, L., Tian, X., et al. (2009). Protective factors relating to decrease risks of adolescent suicidal behaviour. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 313–322.Google Scholar
  11. Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., McCauley, E., Smith, C. J., Vasilev, C. A., & Stevens, A. (2008). Parent-child interactions, peripheral serotonin, and self-inflicted injury in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 15–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cruz, D., Narciso, I., Muñoz, M., Pereira, C. R., & Sampaio, D. (2013a). Adolescents and self-destructive behaviors: An exploratory analysis of family and individual correlates. Psicología Conductual [Behavior Psychology] (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Cruz, D., Narciso, I., Pereira, C. R., & Sampaio, D. (2013b). A short form of the Portuguese version of the youth self-report. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9770-x.
  14. Diamond, G. M., Didner, H., Waniel, A., Priel, B., Asherov, J., & Arbel, S. (2005). Perceived parental care and control among Israeli female adolescents presenting to emergency rooms after self-poisoning. Adolescence, 40, 257–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ehnvall, A., Parker, G., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., & Malhi, G. (2008). Perception of rejecting and neglectful parenting in childhood relates to lifetime suicide attempts for females—But not for males. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernandes, O. M. (1995). Família e Emigração: Estudo da estrutura e do funcionamento familiar de uma “população” não-migrante do concelho de Chaves e de uma “população” portuguesa no Cantão de Genebra. Master Thesis in Clinical Psychology. Coimbra, Faculty of Psychology of the University of Coimbra.Google Scholar
  17. Flouri, E. (2010). Fathers’ behaviors and children’s psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freudstenstein, O., Zohar, A., Apter, A., Shoval, G., Weizman, A., & Zalsman, G. (2011). Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients. European Psychiatry, 26, 504–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerslma, C., Arrindell, W. A., Van Der Veen, N., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (1991). A parental rearing style questionnaire for use with adolescents: Psychometric evaluations of the EMBU-A. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1245–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gerslma, C., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (1994). How large are gender differences in perceived parental rearing styles? A meta-analytic review. In C. Perri, W. A. Arrindel, & M. Eisemann (Eds.), Parenting and psychopathology (pp. 33–54). Bangor, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Gervan, S., Granic, I., Solomon, T., Blokland, K., & Ferguson, B. (2012). Paternal involvement in Multisystemic therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 743–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gryczkowski, M. R., Jordan, S. S., & Mercer, S. H. (2010). Differential relations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting practices and child externalizing behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holman, T. B., Galbraith, R. C., Timmons, N. M., Steed, A., & Tobler, S. B. (2009). Threats to parental and romantic attachment figures’ availability and adult attachment insecurity. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 413–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson, J. G. M., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood and risk for child rearing difficulties during middle adulthood. Journal of Family Issues, 2, 210–233.Google Scholar
  25. Karavasilis, L., Doyle, A. B., & Markiewicz, D. (2003). Associations between parenting style and attachment to mother in middle childhood and adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. King, C. A., & Merchant, C. R. (2008). Social and interpersonal factors relating to adolescent suicidality: A review of literature. Archives of Suicide Research, 12, 181–196.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lacerda, M. I. M. C. (2005). A percepção das práticas parentais pelos adolescentes: Implicações na percepção de controlo e nas estratégias de coping. Unpublished master’s thesis in Psychology, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Lisboa.Google Scholar
  28. Little, T. D., Cunningham, A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin, J., Bureau, J. F., Cloutier, P., & Lafontaine, M. F. (2011). A comparison of invalidating family environment characteristics between university students engaging in self-injurious thoughts & actions and non-self-injuring university students. Journal Youth Adolescence, 40, 1477–1488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matos, P. M., Barbosa, S., & Costa, M. E. (2001). Avaliação da vinculação amorosa em adolescentes e jovens adultos: Construção de um instrumento e estudos de validação. Revista Oficial de la Asociación Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, 11, 93–109.Google Scholar
  31. McKinney, C., & Renk, K. (2008). Differential parenting between mothers and fathers: Implications for late adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 806–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nrugham, L., Larsson, B., & Sund, A. M. (2008). Predictors of suicidal acts across adolescence: Influences of familial, peer and individual factors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109, 35–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Olson, D. H., Porter, R. Q., & Bell, R. (1982). FACES II: Family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scales. St. Paul: University of Minnesota, Family Social Science.Google Scholar
  34. Ougrin, D., Zundel, T., Kyriakopoulos, M., Banarsee, R., Stahl, D., & Taylor, E. (2012). Adolescents with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm: Clinical characteristics and response to therapeutic assessment. Psychological Assessment, 24, 11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Perkins, D. F., & Hartless, G. (2002). An ecological risk-factor examination of suicide ideation and behavior of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perrin, P. B., Heesacker, M., Tiegs, T. J., Swan, L. K., Lawrence, A. W, Jr, Smith, M. B., et al. (2011). Aligning Mars and Venus: The social construction and instability of gender differences in romantic relationships. Sex Roles, 64, 613–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prinstein, M. J. (2008). Introduction to the special section on suicide and non-suicidal self-injury: A review of unique challenges and important directions for self-injury science. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rocha, M., Mota, C. P., & Matos, P. M. (2011). Vinculação à mãe e ligação aos pares da adolescencia: O papel mediador da auto-estima. Análise Psicológica, 2, 185–200.Google Scholar
  39. Sampaio, D. (2002). Ninguém Morre Sozinho (13th). Lisbon, Caminho.Google Scholar
  40. Sharaf, A. Y., Thompson, E. A., & Walsh, E. (2009). Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at risk adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22, 160–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shek, D. T. L. (2005). A longitudinal study of perceived family functioning and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 518–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Spirito, A., Valeri, S., Boergers, J., & Donaldson, D. (2003). Predictors of continued suicidal behavior in adolescents following a suicide attempt. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 284–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steinhausen, H. C., & Metzke, C. W. W. (2004). The impact of suicidal ideation in preadolescence, adolescence, and young adulthood on psychosocial functioning ad psychopathology in young adulthood. Acta Psyquiatrica Scandinava, 110, 438–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Violato, C., & Arato, J. (2004). Childhood attachment and adolescent suicide: A stepwise discriminant analysis in a case comparison study. Individual Differences Research, 2, 162–168.Google Scholar
  45. Wong, I. N., Man, A. F., & Leung, P. W. L. (2002). Perceived parental child rearing and suicidal ideation in Chinese adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 30, 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Cruz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isabel Narciso
    • 1
  • Cícero Roberto Pereira
    • 2
  • Daniel Sampaio
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of Social SciencesUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations