Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 128–143 | Cite as

The Effects of Family Type, Family Relationships and Parental Role Models on Delinquency and Alcohol Use Among Flemish Adolescents

  • Sofie VanasscheEmail author
  • An Katrien Sodermans
  • Koen Matthijs
  • Gray Swicegood
Original Paper

Abstract

This study focused on the effects of family type, family relationships and socialization on alcohol consumption and delinquent behaviour among Flemish adolescents. Data came from the second round of the Leuven Adolescents and Families Study and were collected in 2010 by paper-and-pencil questionnaires in 10 different secondary schools (N = 1,688). The results show that children living in non-intact families are more likely to be delinquent and to drink alcohol at an age it is not legally allowed (below 16 years old). High delinquent behaviour is found among boys in single parent families and among girls in stepfamilies. For alcohol use the reverse is true. A good relationship with the same-sex parent is negatively associated with delinquency. High interparental conflict increases delinquency for boys and alcohol use for girls. Parental role models are highly important, since drinking behaviour of parents, and especially the same-sex parent, are positively associated with externalising problems of children.

Keywords

Parental divorce Parent–child relationship Parental conflict Delinquent behaviour Alcohol consumption Role models Gender differences 

References

  1. Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990’s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato, P. R. (2006). Marital discord, divorce and children’s well-being: Results from a 20-year longitudinal study of two generations. In A. Clarke-Stewart & J. Dunn (Eds.), Families count, effects on child and adolescent development (pp. 179–202). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amato, P. R., & Cheadle, J. E. (2005). The long reach of divorce: Divorce and child well-being across three generations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amato, P. R., & Cheadle, J. E. (2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict, and children’s behaviour problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 86(3), 1139–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amato, P. R., & Gilbreth, J. G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and children’s well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amato, P. R., & Sobolewski, J. M. (2001). The effect of divorce and marital discord on adult children’s psychological well-being. American Sociological Review, 66, 900–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baerveldt, C., Van Rossem, R., & Vermande, M. M. (2003). Pupils’ delinquency and their social networks. A test of some network assumptions of the ability and inability models of delinquency. The Netherlands’ Journal of Social Sciences, 39, 107–125.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, S. (2006). Family structure transitions and adolescent well-being. Demography, 43(3), 447–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bronselaer, J. (2007). Impact op gedragsproblemen bij kinderen. In C. Van Peer (Red.), De impact van een (echt)scheiding op kinderen en ex-partners (pp. 70–97). Brussel: Studiedienst van de Vlaamse Regering.Google Scholar
  11. Buehler, C., & Gerard, J. M. (2002). Marital conflict, ineffective parenting, and children’s and adolescents’ maladjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64, 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke, L., & Berrington, A. (1999). Socio-demographic predictors of divorce. In J. Simons (Ed.), High divorce rates: The state of the evidence on reasons and remedies. Reviews of evidence on the causes of marital breakdown and the effectiveness of policies and services intended to reduce its incidence. London: Lord Chancellor’s Department.Google Scholar
  13. Cookston, J. T. (1999). Parental supervision an family structure: Effects on adolescent problem behaviours. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 32, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crawford, L. A., & Novak, K. B. (2008). Parent–child relations and peer associations as mediators of the family structure substance use relationship. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 155–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demuth, S., & Brown, S. L. (2004). Family structure, family processes, and adolescent delinquency: The significance of parental absence versus parental gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 58–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Denton, R. E., & Kampfe, C. M. (1994). The relationship between family variables and adolescent substance abuse: A literature review. Adolescence, 29, 475–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Doherty, W. J., & Needle, R. H. (1991). Psychological adjustment and substance use among adolescents before and after a parental divorce. Child Development, 62, 328–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doyle, K. W., Wolchik, S. A., & Dawson-McClure, S. (2002). Development of the stepfamily events profile. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 128–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dronkers, J. (1999). The effects of parental conflicts and divorce on the well-being of pupils in Dutch secondary education. European Sociological Review, 15, 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emery, R. E. (1999). Marriage, divorce, and children’s adjustment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Emery, R. E. (2006). Divorcing emotions: Children’s pain, parents’ grief, and the result of a randomized trial mediation or litigation 12 years later. Paper presented at the international conference on children and divorce, 24–27 July 2006, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Fischer, T. (2004). Parental divorce, conflict, and resources: The effects on children’s behaviour problems, socioeconomic attachment, and transitions in the demographic career (p. 216). Nijmegen: ICS Dissertations.Google Scholar
  23. Fischer, T., & De Graaf, P. M. (2001). Ouderlijke echtscheiding en de levensloop van kinderen; negatieve gevolgen of schijnverbanden. (November 20, 2007, http://spitswww.uvt.nl/web/FSW/tijdschrift/Kalmijn/fischer.pdf).
  24. Flewelling, R. L., & Bauman, K. E. (1990). Family structure as a predictor of initial substance use and sexual intercourse in early adolescence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fomby, P., & Cherlin, A. J. (2007). Family instability and child well-being. American Sociological Review, 72, 181–204.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frost, A. K., & Pakiz, B. (1990). The effects of marital disruption on adolescents: Time as dynamic. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 544–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children’s perception of the personal relationship in their social networks. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1016–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganong, L. H., & Coleman, M. (2004). Stepfamily relationships. Development, dynamics, and interventions (p. 270). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2007). Missing data imputation. In A. Gelman & J. Hill (Eds.), Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models (pp. 529–543). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gil, A. G., Vega, W. A., & Biafora, F. (1998). Temporal influences of family structure and family risk factors on drug use initiation in a multiethnic sample of adolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 373–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (1993). Children’s appraisals of marital conflict: Initial investigations of the cognitive-contextual framework. Child Development, 64, 215–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2001). Interparental conflict and child development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., & Thomson, E. (1996). Double jeopardy: Parental conflict and stepfamily outcomes for children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hay, C. (2003). Family strain, gender and delinquency. Sociological Perspectives, 46, 107–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hetherington, E. M., Bridges, M., & Insabella, G. M. (1998). What matters? What does not? Five perspectives on the association between marital transitions and children’s adjustment. American Psychologist, 53, 167–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hetherington, E. M., & Jodl, K. M. (1994). Stepfamilies as settings for child development. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.), Stepfamilies: Who benefits? Who does not? (pp. 55–79). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Hoffmann, J. P. (2002). The community context of family structure and adolescent drug use. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 314–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoffmann, J. P., & Johnson, R. A. (1998). A national portrait of family structure and adolescent drug use. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 633–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jenkins, J. E., & Zunguze, S. T. (1998). The relationship of family structure to adolescent drug use, peer affiliation, and perception of peer acceptance of drug use. Adolescence, 33, 811–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly, J. B. (2000). Children’s adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: A decade review of research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 963–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kierkus, C. A., & Baer, D. (2002). A social control explanation of the relationship between family structure and delinquent behaviour. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44, 425–458.Google Scholar
  42. King, V. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of adolescents’ relationships with stepfathers and nonresident fathers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 910–928.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2000). Interparental conflict and parenting behaviours: A meta-analytic review. Family Relations, 49, 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kristjansson, A. L., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Allegrante, J. P., & Helgason, A. R. (2009). Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: Assessing the importance of family conflict. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kurdek, L. A. (1994). Remarriages and stepfamilies are not inherently problematic. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.), Stepfamilies: Who benefits? Who does not? (pp. 37–44). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Larson, R. W., & Gillman, S. (1999). Transmission of emotions in the daily interactions of single-mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leon, K. (2003). Risk and protective factors in young children’s adjustment to parental divorce: A review of the research. Family Relations, 52, 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lodewijckx, E. (2005). Kinderen en scheiding bij hun ouders in het Vlaamse Gewest: Een analyse op basis van rijksregistergegevens. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings-en Gezinsstudie (October 17, 2007, http://publicaties.vlaanderen.be/docfolder/2223/CBGS_werkdocument_2005_7.pdf).
  49. Lombaert, G. (2005). Onderzoeksrapport: Risico- en protectieve factoren in verband met middelengebruik: Onderzoek bij 14- tot 18-jarige scholieren in de provincies West-Vlaanderen. Oost-Vlaanderen en Zeeland. Gent: De Sleutel. Dienst wetenschappelijk onderzoek.Google Scholar
  50. Morrison, D. R., & Cherlin, A. J. (1995). The divorce process and young children’s well-being: A prospective analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 800–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Needle, R. H., Su, S. S., & Doherty, W. J. (1990). Divorce, remarriage, and adolescent substance use: A prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pett, M., Wampold, B. E., Turner, C. W., & Vaughan-Cole, B. (1999). Paths of influence of divorce on preschool children’s psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pong, S. L., & Ju, D.-B. (2000). The effects of change in family structure and income on dropping out of middle and high school. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. SAS Institute Inc. (2002–2003). SAS version 9.1. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  55. Seltzer, J. (1994). Consequences of marital dissolution for children. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 235–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sodermans, A., Vanassche, S., & Matthijs, K. (2011). Gedeelde kinderen en plusouders: De verblijfsregeling en de gezinssituatie na scheiding. In D. Mortelmans, I. Pasteels, P. Bracke, K. Matthijs, J. Van Bavel, & C. Van Peer (Eds.), Scheiding in Vlaanderen (pp. 135–151). Leuven: Acco.Google Scholar
  57. Spruijt, E. (2007). Scheidingskinderen. Overzicht van recent sociaal-wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de gevolgen van ouderlijke scheiding voor kinderen en jongeren. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij SWP.Google Scholar
  58. Sun, Y. (2001). Family environment and adolescents’ well-being before and after marital disruption: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 697–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sweeney, M. M. (2007). Stepfather families and the emotional well-being of adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 48, 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van Peer, C., & Carrette, V. (2007). Van theoretische en empirische diversiteit naar een onderzoeksmodel. In C. Van Peer (Red.), De impact van een (echt)scheiding op kinderen en ex-partners (pp. 13–36). Brussel: Studiedienst van de Vlaamse Regering.Google Scholar
  61. Vanassche, S., Sodermans, A. K., Dekeyser, G., & Matthijs, K. (2012). Methodologische documenten Leuvens Adolescenten- en Gezinnenonderzoek. Versie 2.0. Onderzoeksdomein Gezin en Bevolking/Leuven: Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek (CeSO)/K.U.Leuven.Google Scholar
  62. Vanassche, S., Sodermans, A. K., & Matthijs, K. (2011). Het Leuvens Adolescenten en Gezinnen Onderzoek 2009–2010. Onderzoeksrapport. Onderzoeksdomein Gezin en Bevolking: Onderzoeksverslag Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek (CeSO).Google Scholar
  63. Videon, T. M. (2002). The effects of parent-adolescent relationships and parental separation on adolescent well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wells, L. E., & Rankin, J. R. (1991). Family and delinquency: A meta-analysis of the impact of broken homes. Social Problems, 38, 71–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Whiteside, M. F., & Becker, B. J. (2000). Parental factors and the young child’s postdivorce adjustment: A meta-analysis with implications for parenting arrangements. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 5–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. WHO ASSIST Working Group. (2002). The alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST): Development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction, 97(9), 1183–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Willets, M. C., & Maroules, N. G. (2004). Does remarriage matter? The well-being of adolescents living with cohabiting versus remarried mothers. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 41, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sofie Vanassche
    • 1
    Email author
  • An Katrien Sodermans
    • 1
  • Koen Matthijs
    • 1
  • Gray Swicegood
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Sociological ResearchKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbana-ChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations