Pilot Evaluation of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Program on Children’s Bullying Behavior
- 989 Downloads
Research documents that parents play a critical role in the development and maintenance of behavior problems in children. Few bullying prevention programs, however, target children in early childhood or include a parenting component in spite of experts recommending that parent training in behavior management be addressed. Based upon these recommendations, the present study examines the relationship among parent characteristics (hostility, depression, and overall parenting skills) and child bullying and the effects of the American Psychological Association’s ACT Raising Safe Kids program on reducing early childhood bullying. The ACT-RSK program is a primary family violence and child physical abuse prevention program for parents of young children. Fifty-two parents/caregivers, representing children ages 4–10, completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids Scale, and Early Childhood Bullying Questionnaire (derived from the Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Twenty-five of these parents/caregivers were trained in effective parenting including nonviolent discipline, child development, anger management, social problem-solving skills, effects of violent media on children, and methods to protect children from exposure to violence through the ACT-RSK program. The remaining 27 parents/caregivers received treatment as usual. Results indicate decreased bullying in children whose parents completed the ACT-RSK program. Furthermore, of the parent characteristics assessed, parental hostility is the only significant parent predictor for child bullying. These findings suggest the efficacy of this brief intervention for preventing bullying.
KeywordsBullying Parent–child interaction Positive parenting Prevention Violence
- Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
- ACT Against Violence. (2012). Retrieved from www.actagainstviolence.apa.org.
- Alsaker, F. D., & Nagele, C. (2008). Bullying in kindergarten and prevention. In W. Craig & D. Pepler (Eds.), An international perspective on understanding and addressing bullying (Vol. I, pp. 230–252). Kingston, Canada: PREVNet.Google Scholar
- Brody, G., Dorsey, S., Forehand, R., & Armistead, L. (2002). Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom process to the adjustment of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families. Child Development, 73(1), 274–286. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Child Trends Data Bank. (2012). Retrieved from www.childtrendsdatabank.org.
- Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1997). Transactional ecological systems in developmental psychopathology. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Cicchetti, & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 317–349). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Craig, W. M., Pepler, D. J., Murphy, A., & McCuaig-Edge, H. (2010). What works in bullying? In E. M. Vernberg & B. K. Biggs (Eds.), Preventing and treating bullying and victimization (pp. 215–242). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Culp, A. M., Culp, R. E., Horton, C. H., Curtner-Smith, M. E., Palermo, F., & Culp, K. (2003). Head Start children’s playground aggression and teachers’ and maternal reports. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
- Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Education and Department of Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.stopbullying.gov.
- Derogatis, L. R. (1993). The brief symptom inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures manual (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
- Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1993). Criminal, penal, and life histories of chronic offenders: Risk and protective factors and early identification. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 3(4), 492–523.Google Scholar
- Knox, M., Burkhart, K., & Cromly, A. (in press). Supporting positive parenting in community health centers: The ACT Raising Safe Kids Program. Journal of Community Psychology.Google Scholar
- Lyons-Ruth, K., Lyubchik, A., Wolfe, R., & Bronfman E. (2002). Parental depression and child attachment: Hostile and helpless profiles of parent and child behavior among families at risk. In S. H. Goodman, & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 89–120). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/10449-004.
- Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and associations with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In D. Pepler & K. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411–448). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (2010). Understanding and researching bullying. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools (pp. 9–34). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, D., Kelly, B. M., Duong, M. T., & Badaly, D. (2010). A contextual perspective on intervention and prevention efforts for bully-victim problems. In E. M. Vernberg & B. K. Biggs (Eds.), Preventing and treating bullying and victimization (pp. 17–44). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- Shaw, D. S., Winslow, E. B., Owens, E. B., Vondra, J. I., Cohn, J. F., & Bell, R. Q. (1998). The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 95–107. doi: 10.1023/A:1022665704584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Storey, K., Slaby, R., Adler, M., Minotti, J., & Katz, R. (2008). Retrieved from www.eyesonbullying.org/toolkit.html.
- Thornton, T. N., Craft, C. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Lynch B. S., & Baer, K. (2002). Best practices of youth violence presentation: A sourcebook for community action (Rev.). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
- Tucker, S., Gross, D., Fogg, L., Delaney, K., & Lapporte, R. (1998). The long-term efficacy of a behavioral parent training intervention for families with 2-year-olds. Research in Nursing & Health, 21, 199–210. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-240X(199806)21:3<199::AID-NUR3>3.0.CO;2-C.
- Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, J. M. (2010). The Incredible Years parents, teachers, and children training series: A multifaceted treatment approach for young children with conduct disorders. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 194–210). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Q., Eisenberg, N., Losoya, S. H., Fabes, R., Reiser, M., Guthrie, I. K., et al. (2002). The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children’s empathy-related responding and social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 73, 893–915. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.0044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar