The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress Among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles
We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children’s autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism, child characteristics, and physical incapacity). In order to examine potential buffering effects of coping strategies on stress associated with the child’s symptom severity, the interactive effects of autism symptoms with coping strategies were also examined. Participants included 77 primary caregivers of a child with ASD. Using multiple regression analyses, emotion-oriented coping scores were associated with more parent and family problems, and task-oriented coping was associated with lower physical incapacity scores. The child’s autism severity was the strongest and most consistent predictor of stress. Further, emotion-oriented coping moderated the relationship between pessimism stress and autism symptomatology, and distraction coping was a moderator between parent and family stress and autism symptoms. Results indicate that increasing our knowledge of the coping strategies that are more or less effective and under what conditions some coping strategies may be either beneficial or harmful for this population of parents has direct implications for treatment and parent education efforts.
KeywordsASD Parenting Stress Coping Symptom severity
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. (Text Revision).Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Autism spectrum disorders overview. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/overview.htm.
- Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. A. (1990). Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS): Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Herring, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., & Einfeld, S. (2006). Behavior and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 874–882.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jose, P. E. (2008). ModGraph-I: A programme to compute cell means for the graphical display of moderational analyses: The internet version, Version 2.0. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved June 25th from http://www.victoria.ac.nz/psyc/staff/paul-jose-files/modgraph/modgraph.php.
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptations. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282–325). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Perry, A., Harris, K., & Minnes, P. (2005). Family environments and family harmony: An exploration across severity, age, and type of DD. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11, 17–29.Google Scholar