Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 227–235 | Cite as

Associations Between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and Without ADHD

  • Valarie M. Schroeder
  • Michelle L. Kelley
Original Paper

Abstract

We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported their children as exhibiting greater problems with behavioral control and metacognitive abilities, and described their family environments as less organized and higher in family conflict. Family environment and parenting practices were not correlated with behavioral control or metacognitive abilities in children with ADHD. In children without ADHD, higher levels of family cohesion, organization, and expressiveness, and lower levels of family conflict, were significantly correlated with greater behavioral control. Higher levels of family cohesion and organization were significantly and positively associated with regulation of metacognitive abilities in children without ADHD. In general, aspects of the family environment and parental limit setting appear to be associated with the development of executive functions in children not diagnosed with ADHD; however, family environment and parenting practices were not associated with executive functions in children diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords

ADHD Executive function Family environment Parenting Self-control 

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn, text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65–94. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnett, R., Maruff, P., & Vance, A. (2005). An investigation of visuospatial memory impairment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1433–1443. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705005234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biederman, J., & Faraone, S. V. (2005). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet, 366, 237–248. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66915-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., & Monuteaux, M. C. (2002). Impact of exposure to parental attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on clinical features and dysfunction in the offspring. Psychological Medicine, 32, 817–827. doi: 10.1017/S0033291702005652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biederman, J., Milberger, S., Faraone, S., Kiely, K., Guite, J., Mick, E., et al. (1995). Impact of adversity on functioning and comorbidity in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1495–1504. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199511000-00017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloomquist, M. L., & Schnell, S. V. (2002). Helping children with aggression and conduct problems: Best practices for intervention. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2005). Productive activity and the prevention of behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 41, 89–98. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.1.89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlson, E. A., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1995). A developmental investigation of inattention and hyperactivity. Child Development, 66, 37–54. doi: 10.2307/1131189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Mental health in the United States: prevalence of diagnosis and medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54, 842–847.Google Scholar
  11. Codding, R. S., Lewandowski, L., & Gordon, M. (2001). Examining executive functioning in boys with ADHD. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, 24–28 August 2001. Retrieved from the Education Resources Information Center Web site: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/19/f1/9e.pdf.
  12. Crowley, M. J., & Kazdin, A. E. (1998). Child psychosocial functioning and parent quality of life among clinically referred children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 7, 233–251. doi: 10.1023/A:1022999401298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Douglas, V. I. (2005). Cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A long-term follow-up. Canadian Psychology, 46, 23–31. doi: 10.1037/h0085821.Google Scholar
  14. DuPaul, G. J., McGoey, K. E., Eckert, T. L., & Vanbrakle, J. (2001). Preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Impairments in behavioral, social, and school functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 508–515. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200105000-00009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three-wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76, 1055–1071. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00897.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fishbein, D., Hyde, C., Coe, B., & Paschall, M. (2004). Neurocognitive and physiological prerequisites for prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 453–477.Google Scholar
  17. Gerard, A. B. (1994). Parent–Child Relationship Inventory. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  18. Geurts, H. M., Verté, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). ADHD subtypes: Do they differ in their executive functioning profile? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 457–477. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2004.11.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, V. K., Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (1999). Children’s classroom behavior: The unique contribution of family organization. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 355–371. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.13.3.355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (2001). Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 183–207. doi: 10.1023/A:1017592030434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Joussemet, M., Koestner, R., Lekes, N., & Landry, R. (2005). A longitudinal study of the relationship of maternal autonomy support to children’s adjustment and achievement in school. Journal of Personality, 73, 1215–1235. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00347.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lange, G., Sheerin, D., & Carr, A. (2005). Family factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and emotional disorders in children. Journal of Family Therapy, 27, 76–96. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2005.00300.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. LeCuyer-Maus, E. A., & Houck, G. M. (2002). Mother-toddler interaction and the development of self-regulation in a limit-setting context. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 17, 184–200. doi: 10.1053/jpdn.2002.124112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lucia, V. C., & Breslau, N. (2006). Family cohesion and children’s behavior problems: A longitudinal investigation. Psychiatry Research, 141, 141–149. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2005.06.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mahone, E. M., Cirino, P. T., Cutting, L. E., Cerrone, P. M., Hagelthorn, K. M., Hiemenz, J. R., et al. (2002). Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in children with ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 643–662. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6177(01)00168-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McCarty, C. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGuiseppe, D. L., & Christakis, D. A. (2005). Parental emotional support and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems among children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 267–275. doi: 10.1097/00004703-200508000-00002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moos, R. H. (1990). Conceptual and empirical approaches to developing family-based assessment procedures: Resolving the case of the Family Environment Scale. Family Process, 29, 199–208. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1990.00199.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1984). Family Environment Scale (FES) (3rd ed.). CA: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.Google Scholar
  30. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2005). Predicting individual differences in attention, memory, and planning in first graders from experiences at home, child care, and school. Developmental Psychology, 41, 99–114. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.1.99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm. Accessed 3 April 2007.
  32. Pressman, L. J., Loo, S. K., Carpenter, E. M., Asarnow, J. R., Lynn, D., McCracken, J. T., et al. (2006). Relationship of family environment and parental psychiatric diagnosis to impairment in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 346–354. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000192248.61271.c8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pruett, M. K., Williams, T. Y., Insabella, G., & Little, T. D. (2003). Family and legal indicators of child adjustment to divorce among families with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 169–180. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.17.2.169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roth, R. M., Isquith, P. K., & Gioia, G. A. (2005). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function—Adult Version. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Skosnik, P. D., Chatterton, R., Swisher, T., & Park, S. (2000). Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after video game exposure. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 36, 59–68. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8760(99)00100-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Dalen, L., Daley, D., & Remington, B. (2002). Are planning, working memory, and inhibition associated with individual differences in preschool ADHD symptoms? Developmental Neuropsychology, 21, 255–272. doi: 10.1207/S15326942DN2103_3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Staller, J. A. (2006). Diagnostic profiles in outpatient child psychiatry. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 98–102. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.1.98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suveg, C., Zeman, J., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Cassano, M. (2005). Emotional socialization in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 145–155. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-1823-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  40. Wakschlag, L. S., & Hans, S. L. (1999). Relation of maternal responsiveness during infancy to the development of behavior problems in high-risk youths. Developmental Psychology, 35, 569–579. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.35.2.569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community HealthWright State UniversityKetteringUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations