Three-dimensional simulation of field emission triode structure using carbon-nanotube emitters
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Field emission (FE) triode arrays with the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the field emitters are successfully fabricated and analyzed. Both the experimental measurement and numerical calculation are conducted to examine the electron conduction properties of AAO-CNTs. Using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method, a set of Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation is solved self-consistently, where the FE current is computed with Fowler–Nordheim equation. We explore the FE characteristics of AAO-CNTs in the triode structure. After calibration with the measured data, we study the evolution of current density and the convergence of the electron beams on anode plate with different gate voltages, anode heights, and SiO2 thickness. The current density and focus performance maintain a trade-off relationship, where a larger current density accompanies more divergent electron beam.
KeywordsCarbon nanotubes Anodic aluminum oxide Field emission Three-dimensional simulation Finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method Current density Electron beam
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