Advertisement

Cultural employment growth in Brazilian municipalities

Abstract

The creative and cultural industries have been growing faster than traditional industries over the last few decades. In Brazil, reports by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics show more a growth of gross output and value added greater than a 30% between 2003–2005 and 2007–2010. This paper aims to evaluate how three mechanisms, specialization, urbanization, and production structure externalities, impact the formal cultural employment growth rate in Brazilian municipalities between 2006 and 2016. We employ spatial econometric models to capture both the direct and indirect effects from these externalities. The main results show that specialization has mixed effects in explaining the growth of formal cultural employment in Brazil. Urbanization and diversification of production structure, in turn, are positive associated with formal cultural employment in Brazil. However, differently than the empirical literature for Europe and North America, we find no evidence of spatial spillover effects in the Brazilian case.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1

Source: Prepared by the authors

Notes

  1. 1.

    Formal workers in Brazil are defined as those with a formal labor contract. Informal workers are defined as those unregistered and self-employed.

  2. 2.

    The SAR, SEM, and SAC models have also been estimated and their results are presented on Appendix 3.

  3. 3.

    The values are calculated at constant prices of 2016.

References

  1. Almeida, E. (2012). Econometria espacial aplicada. Campinas, São Paulo: Editora Alínea.

  2. Anselin, L. (1988). Spatial econometrics: Methods and models. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

  3. Baer, W. (2007). Brazilian economy: Growth and development (6th revd E). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

  4. Benhamou, F. (2007). A economia da cultura. Cotia: Ateliê Editorial.

  5. Borowiecki, K. J. (2013). Geographic clustering and productivity: An instrumental variable approach for classical composers. Journal of Urban Economics,73(1), 94–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2012.07.004.

  6. Borowiecki, K. J. (2015). Agglomeration economies in classical music. Papers in Regional Science,94(3), 443–468. https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12078.

  7. Cellini, R., & Cuccia, T. (2019). Do behaviours in cultural markets affect economic resilience? An analysis of Italian regions, European Planning Studies,27(4), 784–801.

  8. Combes, P. P. (2000). Economic structure and local growth: France, 1984–1993. Journal of Urban Economics,47(3), 329–355. https://doi.org/10.1006/juec.1999.2143.

  9. Cooke, P. N., & Lazzeretti, I. (2008). Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  10. Denis-Jacob, J. (2012). Cultural industries in small-sized Canadian cities: Dream or reality?. Urban Studies,49(1), 97–114.

  11. Diniz, S. C., & Machado, A. F. (2009). Consumo de bens e serviços culturais nas metrópoles brasileiras—uma análise a partir de dados da POF. Políticas Culturais em Revista,2(1), 62–79. https://doi.org/10.9771/1983-3717pcr.v2i1.3732.

  12. Diniz, S. C., & Machado, A. F. (2011). Analysis of the consumption of artistic-cultural goods and services in Brazil. Journal of Cultural Economics,35(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-010-9129-8.

  13. Duranton, G., & Overman, H. G. (2005). Testing for localization using micro-geographic data. The Review of Economic Studies,72(4), 1077–1106. https://doi.org/10.1111/0034-6527.00362.

  14. Ferreira Neto, A. B., Freguglia, R. S., & Fajardo, B. A. G. (2012). Diferenciais salariais para o setor cultural e ocupações artísticas no Brasil. Economia Aplicada,16(1), 49–76. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-80502012000100003.

  15. Ferreira Neto, A. B., & Perobelli, F. S. (2013). Spatial analysis of cultural activities in the microregions of Minas Gerais. Economia,14(3–4), 139–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ.2013.10.001.

  16. Ferreira Neto, A. B., Perobelli, F. S., & Rabelo, A. (2018). Looking behind the scenes: An assessment of the interdependence of Brazilian cultural industries. The Review of Regional Studies,48(2), 217–243.

  17. Florida, R. (2014). The rise of the creative class—Revisited: Revised and expanded. New York: Basic Books.

  18. Garsous, G., Corderi, D., Velasco, M., & Colombo, A. (2017). Tax incentives and job creation in the tourism sector of Brazil’s SUDENE area. World Development,96, 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.034.

  19. Glaeser, E. L., Kallal, H. D., Scheinkman, J. A., & Shleifer, A. (1992). Growth in cities. Journal of Political Economy,100(6), 1126–1152.

  20. Glaeser, E. L., Kolko, J., & Saiz, A. (2001). Consumer city. Journal of Economic Geography,1(1), 27–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/1.1.27.

  21. Groot, S. P., Groot, H. L., & Smit, M. J. (2014). Regional wage differences in the Netherlands: Micro evidence on agglomeration externalities. Journal of Regional Science,54(3), 503–523. https://doi.org/10.1111/jors.12070.

  22. Hellmanzik, C. (2010). Location matters: Estimating cluster premiums for prominent modern artists. European Economic Review,54(2), 199–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2009.06.001.

  23. Henderson, J. V. (2003). Marshall’s scale economies. Journal of Urban Economics,53(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0094-1190(02)00505-3.

  24. IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. (2013). Sistema de Informacoes e Indicadores Culturais 2007–2010. Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

  25. Isard, W. (1971). Method of regional analysis (70th ed.). London: The MIT Press.

  26. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House.

  27. Lazzeretti, L., & Capone, F. (2009). Spatial spillovers and employment dynamics in local tourist systems in Italy (1991–2001). European Planning Studies,17(11), 1665–1683. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310903230616.

  28. LeSage, J., & Pace, R. K. (2009). Introduction to spatial econometrics (1st ed.). New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC.

  29. LeSage, J. P., & Pace, R. K. (2014). What regional scientists need to know about spatial econometrics. The Review of Regional Studies,44(1), 13–32.

  30. Machado, A. F., Golgher, A. B., Diniz, S., & Gama, L. C. D. (2017). Consumption of cultural goods and services and time allocation in Brazil. Nova Economia,27(1), 35–63. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6351/3115.

  31. Machado, A. F., & Paglioto, B. F. (2012). Perfil dos frequentadores de atividades culturais: o caso nas metrópoles brasileiras. Estudos Econômicos,42(4), 701–730. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-41612012000400003.

  32. Machado, A. F., Rabelo, A., & Moreira, A. G. (2013). Specificities of the artistic cultural labor market in Brazilian metropolitan regions between 2002 and 2010. Journal of Cultural Economics,38(3), 237–251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-013-9210-1.

  33. Mangset, P., Heian, M. T., Kleppe, B., & Løyland, K. (2018). Why are artists getting poorer? About the reproduction of low income among artists. International Journal of Cultural Policy,24(4), 539–558. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2016.1218860.

  34. Markusen, A. (2006). Urban development and the politics of a creative class: Evidence from a study of artists. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space,38(10), 1921–1940.

  35. Marshall, A. (1920). Principles of economics. London: Macmillan.

  36. Mitchell, S. (2019). London calling? Agglomeration economies in literature since 1700. Journal of Urban Economics,122, 16–32.

  37. O’Hagan, J., & Borowiecki, K. J. (2010). Birth location, migration, and clustering of important composers: Historical patterns. Historical Methods,43(2), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/01615441003729945.

  38. O’Hagan, J., & Hellmanzik, C. (2008). Clustering and migration of important visual artists: Broad historical evidence. Historical Methods,41(3), 121–136. https://doi.org/10.3200/HMTS.41.3.121-136.

  39. Pratt, A. C. (2017). Beyond resilience: Learning from the cultural economy. European Planning Studies,25(1), 127–139.

  40. Ribeiro, L. C. S., & Andrade, J. R. L. (2015). Characterization of tourism clusters in Brazil. Tourism Economics,21(5), 957–976. https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2014.0384.

  41. Ribeiro, L. C. S., & Lopes, T. H. C. R. (2015). Características e similaridades do setor cultural nos municípios e regiões metropolitanas brasileiras. Revista de Economia Contemporânea,19(2), 5–28. https://doi.org/10.1590/198055271926.

  42. Ribeiro, L. C. S., Lopes, T. H. C. R., Montenegro, R. L. G., & Andrade, J. R. L. (2018). Employment dynamics in the Brazilian tourism sector (2006–2015). Tourism Economics,24(4), 418–433. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816617736409.

  43. Seaman, B. A. (2006). Empirical studies of demand for the performing arts, chapter 37. In Handbook of the economics of art and culture (Vol. 1, pp. 415–472). Elsevier.

  44. Souza, G. F., Machado, A. F., & Domingues, E. P. (2019). Economic impacts of the vale-cultura (culture voucher): A computable general equilibrium model. Theoretical Economics Letters,9(5), 1411–1433.

  45. Throsby D. (1992) Artists as Workers. In: Towse R., Khakee A. (eds.) Cultural Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Download references

Acknowledgment

Luiz Carlos de Santana Ribeiro gratefully acknowledge the financial support from National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Brazil.

Author information

Correspondence to Luiz Carlos de Santana Ribeiro.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendices

Appendix 1

See Table 6.

Table 6 Correlation matrix.

Appendix 2

See Table 7.

Table 7 Spatial weights matrices’ tests.

Appendix 3

See Table 8.

Table 8 SAR, SEM, and SAC results.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

de Santana Ribeiro, L., Lopes, T.H.C.R., Ferreira Neto, A.B. et al. Cultural employment growth in Brazilian municipalities. J Cult Econ (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-020-09378-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cultural activities
  • Brazilian municipalities
  • Spatial econometrics
  • Specialization externalities

JEL Classification

  • C31
  • R15
  • Z10