Advertisement

Television singing competitions create stars? Empirical evidence from the digital music chart in South Korea

  • Daegon Cho
  • Seok Ho Lee
  • Yeawon Yoo
  • Hyo-Youn Chu
Original Article
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

After the success of American Idol, television singing competitions have become widespread and popular around the world. Although this format has had a substantial influence on the music market of many countries, few studies have quantified this influence. This study examines whether musicians from singing competitions (contestants) earned more money through digital music sales than did other musicians (non-contestants). We used a unique dataset that summed sales from the top 200 monthly digital music chart of South Korea between 2011 and 2014. We analyze the number of the song sold during this tenure, considering several variables such as gender and seasonality. Our findings indicate that songs by contestants yielded larger sales than did those of non-contestants. This positive impact is greater for the top two finalists in the competitions. The insights gained in this study will provide guidance to record companies who are considering recording contracts with contest winners.

Keywords

Television singing competition Reality TV Digital music chart Music industry Popular music 

JEL Classification

L82 Z11 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Adler, M. (1985). Stardom and talent. American Economic Review, 75, 208–212.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, M. (2006). Stardom and talent. Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, 1, 895–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiello, R., & Sloboda, J. A. (Eds.). (1994). Musical perceptions (pp. 273–282). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Amegashie, J. A. (2009). American Idol: Should it be a singing contest or a popularity contest? Journal of Cultural Economics, 33(4), 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annese, S. (2004). Mediated identity in the parasocial interaction of TV. Identity, 4(4), 371–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashe, D. D., & McCutcheon, L. E. (2001). Shyness, loneliness, and attitude toward celebrities. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6(9), 124–133.Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharjee, S., Gopal, R. D., Lertwachara, K., Marsden, J. R., & Telang, R. (2007). The effect of digital sharing technologies on music markets: A survival analysis of albums on ranking charts. Management Science, 53(9), 1359–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornstein, R. F. (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research 1968–1987. Psychological Bulletin, 106(2), 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brabazon, T. (2011). Popular music: Topics, trends & trajectories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
  10. Brynjolfsson, E. Y., Hu, Y. J., & Simester, D. (2011). Goodbye pareto principle, hello long tail: The effect of search costs on the concentration of product sales. Management Science, 57(8), 1373–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi, J., & Maliangkay, R. (2014). K-pop—The international rise of the Korean music industry. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, J. (2007). Attitudes toward viewing and participating in reality shows in Israel. In Proceedings of the New York state communication association. Google Scholar
  13. Connolly, M., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Rockonomics: The economics of popular music. Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, 1, 667–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Danaher, B., Smith, M. D., & Telang, R. (2014). Piracy and copyright enforcement mechanisms. In J. Lerner & S. Stern (Eds.), Innovation policy and the economy, chapter 2 (Vol. 14, pp. 31–67). Chicago, Illinois: National Bureau of Economic Research, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dehejia, R. H., & Wahba, S. (2002). Propensity score-matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Derrick, J. L., Gabriel, S., & Tippin, B. (2008). Parasocial relationships and self-discrepancies: Faux relationships have benefits for low self-esteem individuals. Personal Relationships, 15(2), 261–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dertouzos, J. N. (2008). Radio airplay and the record industry: An economic analysis. Washington: National Association of Broadcasters.Google Scholar
  18. Eyal, K., & Fox, J. (2007). Relationships with mediated personalities and show-related behaviors as predictors of television show enjoyment. In Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  19. Eyal, K., & Rubin, A. M. (2003). Viewer aggression and homophily, identification, and parasocial relationships with television characters. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47(1), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fiske, J. (1992). The cultural economy of fandom. In L. Lewis (Ed.), The adoring audience: Fan culture and popular media (pp. 30–49). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Fu, Q., & Lu, J. (2012). The optimal multi-stage contest. Economic Theory, 51(2), 351–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ginsburgh, V. A., & Van Ours, J. C. (2003). Expert opinion and compensation: Evidence from a musical competition. The American Economic Review, 93(1), 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, H. (2004). Kissing off the big music labels. Businessweek, Sept 6. http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/stories/2004-09-05/kissing-off-the-big-music-labels.
  24. Heizler, O., & Kimhi, A. (2012). Who will be idol? The importance of social networks for winning on reality shows. Journal of Socio-Economics, 41(1), 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Henry, N. (2011). Celebrity verses non-celebrity: Parasocial relationships with characters in reality-based television programs. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami.Google Scholar
  26. Holmes, S. (2004). Reality goes pop! Reality TV, popular music, and narratives of stardom in Pop Idol. Television & New Media, 5(2), 147–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horton, D., & Richard Wohl, R. (1956). Mass communication and para-social interaction: Observations on intimacy at a distance. Psychiatry, 19(3), 215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IFPI. (2015). Charting the path to sustainable growth. IFPI digital music report. London, UK: International Federation of the Photographic Industry (IFPI).Google Scholar
  29. Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Jenkins, H. (2009). Buying into American Idol. In S. Murray & L. Ouellette (Eds.), Reality TV: Remaking television culture (pp. 343–362). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Jung, H. W. (2014). The popularity of audition stars. Newstomato. Retrieved from http://www.newstomato.com/readNews.aspx?no=460288. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  32. Keveney, B. (2014). TV singing shows fail to create stars. USA Today, Jan 14. http://www.usatoday.com/story/life/tv/2014/01/14/tv-singing-shows-stars-story/4478095/.
  33. Kim, S. H., & Kim, K. W. (2013). Intense competition and 3 years of training. Money Today. Retrieved from http://news.mt.co.kr/mtview.php?no=2013112812424318582&MM. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  34. Korea Creative Content Agency. (2012). Trends of domestic music consumers. Music Industry White Paper 2011. http://www.kocca.kr/knowledge/publication/indu/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2012/12/18/WfbeQw11XyYS.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  35. Labrecque, L. I. (2014). Fostering consumer–brand relationships in social media environments: The role of parasocial interaction. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 134–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Larsen, K., & Zubernis, L. (2011). Fandom at the crossroads: Celebration, shame and fan/producer relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Marketing Charts. (2008). Nielsen measures the American Idol phenomenon. http://www.marketingcharts.com/television/nielsen-measures-the-american-idol-phenomenon-4628/. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  38. Masnick, M. (2013). Massive growth in independent musicians and singers over the past decade. https://www.techdirt.com/blog/casestudies/articles/20130529/15560423243/massive-growth-independent-musicians-singers-over-past-decade.shtml. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  39. Meyrowitz, J. (1982). Television and interpersonal behavior: Codes of perception and response. In R. Cathcart & G. Gumpert (Eds.), Inter-media: Interpersonal communication in a media world (3rd ed., pp. 253–272). New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1982). Exposure effects in person perception: Familiarity, similarity, and attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18(5), 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ordanini, A. (2006). Selection models in the music industry: How a prior independent experience may affect chart success. Journal of Cultural Economics, 30(3), 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ouellette, L., & Hay, J. (2008). Better living through reality TV: Television and post-welfare citizenship. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Perse, E. M., & Rubin, R. B. (1989). Attribution in social and parasocial relationships. Communication Research, 16(1), 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rowe, D. J. (2011). Full 2010-11 ratings: CBS tops viewership, fox is No .1 in demo and idol remains most-watched. Retrieved from http://www.tvguide.com/news/2010-11-ratings-1033838/. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  45. Rubin, R. B., & McHugh, M. P. (1987). Development of parasocial interaction relationships. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 31, 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salganik, M. J., Dodds, P. S., & Watts, D. J. (2006). Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science, 311(5762), 854–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schiappa, E., Allen, M., & Greg, P. B. (2007). Parasocial relationships and television: A meta analysis of the effects. In R. Preiss, B. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Mass media effects: Advances through meta-analysis (pp. 301–314). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Seabrook, J. (2003). The money note: Can the record business survive? New Yorker, 42–55.Google Scholar
  49. Seabrook, J. (2012). Factory girls: Cultural technology and the making of K-pop. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/10/08/factory-girls-2. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  50. Shim, D. (2006). Hybridity and the rise of Korean popular culture in Asia. Media, Culture and Society, 28(1), 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stigler, G., & Becker, G. (1977). De gustibus non est disputandum. American Economic Review, 67, 76–90.Google Scholar
  52. Strobl, E. A., & Tucker, C. (2000). The dynamics of chart success in the UK pre-recorded popular music industry. Journal of Cultural Economics, 24(2), 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tarrant, M., North, A. C., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2001). Social categorization, self-esteem, and the estimated musical preferences of male adolescents. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(5), 565–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. The Economist. (2012). Top of the K-pops. http://www.economist.com/node/21560605. Accessed 30 July 2017.
  55. Trepte, S. (2006). Social identity theory. In J. Bryant & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Psychology of entertainment (pp. 255–271). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  56. Tsao, J. (1996). Compensatory media use: An exploration of two paradigms. Communication Studies, 47(1–2), 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of BusinessKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.School of JournalismThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems EngineeringArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  4. 4.College of International StudiesKyung Hee UniversityYonginSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations