Post-marital Residence Patterns in the Late Archaic Coastal Southeast USA: Similarities in Stone Tools Revealed by Geometric Morphometrics

  • Matthew C. SangerEmail author
  • Samuel Bourcy
  • Quinn Monique Ogden
  • Michele Troutman


Analyses of hafted biface shape using geometric morphometrics reveals similarities between assemblages recovered from two contemporaneous settlements located in coastal Georgia (USA), both dating to ca. 4200–3900 cal. B.P. This finding contradicts prior studies that demonstrated notable differences in pottery manufacture techniques used at each site. This pattern of similarity in one technology and differences in another suggests that residents of these settlements engaged in post-marital residence practices that resulted in potters remaining in their natal homes while stone tool makers were the post-marital mobile gender. Based on historic records, as well as limited archaeological studies, we posit that women were the primary producers of pottery and that matrilocality was a dominant practice in the region. This conclusion is strengthened by studies along nearby river valleys where similar patterns were observed. We posit that matrilocality was a means by which newly sedentary groups formed alliances, exchange relations, and social networks among and between one another even as mobility between regions decreased.


Kinship Social networks Matrilocal Southeast USA Shell rings 



Field and lab work was supported by the Edward John Noble Foundation and the St. Catherines Island Foundation. Curation; analysis and data processing took place at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) under the supervision of David Hurst Thomas, Lorann Pendleton, Anna Semon, Matthew Napolitano, and Ginessa Mahar. Interns and volunteers at AMNH sorted through and identified archaeological objects and have our thanks. Reviews by Kenneth Sassaman and an anonymous reader also greatly increased the quality of our paper, for which we are grateful.


  1. Adams, D. C., Rohlf, F. J., & Slice, D. E. (2004). Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the ‘revolution’. The Italian Journal of Zoology, 71(1), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, W., & Richardson, J. I. (1971). The reconstruction of kinship from archaeological data: the concepts, the methods, and the feasibility. American Antiquity, 36(1), 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alterman, M. C. (1987). A reassessment of Late Archaic settlement and subsistence along the Upper Savannah River Valley: A view from the Richard B. Russeell Reservoir: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, D. G. (1996). Models of Paleoindian and Early Archaic settlement in the Lower Southeast. In D. G. Anderson & K. E. Sassaman (Eds.), The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast (pp. 28–47). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  5. Andrefsky, W. J. (1997). Thoughts on stone tool shape and inferred function. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology, 13, 125–143.Google Scholar
  6. Andrefsky, W. J. (2006). Experimental and archaeological verification of an index of retouch for hafted bifaces. American Antiquity, 71(4), 743–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arthur, K. W. (2010). Feminine knowledge and skill reconsidered: women and flaked stone tools. American Anthropologist, 112(2), 228–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bamforth, D. B., & Finlay, N. (2008). Introduction: archaeological approaches to lithic production skill and craft learning. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 15(1), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bengtson, J. D. (2017). Infants, mothers, and gendered space in a Mississippian village: revisiting Wilkie’s House 1 at the Hunze-Evans Site. Childhood in the Past, 10(2), 102–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolger, D. A. (2013). Gender, labor, and pottery production in prehistory. In D. Bolger (Ed.), A companion to gender prehistory (pp. 161–179). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Bolnick, D. A., & Smith, D. G. (2003). Unexpected patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation among Native Americans from the Southeastern United States. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 122(4), 336–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolnick, D. A., & Smith, D. G. (2007). Migration and social structure among the Hopewell: evidence from ancient DNA. American Antiquity, 72(4), 627–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourcy, S. (2018). Reshaping the past: a reanalysis of the biface collection from Lamoka Lake. Masters Thesis, Anthropology Department, Binghamton University.Google Scholar
  14. Bowser, B. J. (2000). From pottery to politics: an ethnoarchaeological study of political factionalism, ethnicity, and domestic pottery style in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 7(3), 219–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braund, K. E. H. (1993). Deerskins and duffels: the Creek Indian trade with Anglo-Americans, 1685–1815. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  16. Buchanan, B. (2006). An analysis of Folsom projectile point resharpening using quantitative comparisons of form and allometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchanan, B., & Collard, M. (2010). A geometric morphometrics-based assessment of blade shape differences among Paleoindian projectile point types from western North America. Journal of Archaeological Science. Elsevier Ltd, 37(2), 350–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabak, M. A,. Sassaman, K. E. & Gillam, J. C. (1996). Distributional archaeology in the Aiken Plateau: intensive survey of E Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Savannah River Archaeologicical Research Program, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, T. N. (1959). Choctaw subsistence: ethnographic notes from the Lincecum Manuscript. Florida Anthropologist, 12, 9–24.Google Scholar
  20. Carranza, E. (2014). Soil endowments, female labor force participation, and the demographic deficit of women in India. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(4), 197–225.Google Scholar
  21. Carsten, J., & Hugh-Jones, S. (1995). About the house: Lévi-Strauss and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Charlin, J., & González-José, R. (2012). Size and shape variation in Late Holocene projectile points of Southern Patagonia: a geometric morphometric study. American Antiquity, 77(2), 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chilton, E. S. (1998). The cultural origins of technical choice: unraveling Algonquian and Iroquoian ceramic traditions in the Northeast. In M. T. Stark (Ed.), The archaeology of social boundaries (pp. 132–160). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  24. Claassen, C. (2010). Feasting with shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley: Archaic sacred sites and rituals. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  25. Claassen, C. (2011). Rock shelters as women’s retreats: understanding Newt Kash. American Antiquity, 76(4), 628–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Claassen, C. (2012). Cave rituals and ritual caves in the Eastern United States. In L. Sundstrom & W. R. DeBoer (Eds.), Enduring motives: the archaeology of tradition and religion in Native America (pp. 253–263). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  27. Claflin, W. H. J. (1931). The Stalling’s Island Mound, Columbia County, Georgia. In Cambridge: Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 14. Harvard: University.Google Scholar
  28. Coe, J. L. (1964). The formative cultures of the Carolina Piedmont. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Philidelphia: The American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  29. Colaninno, C. E. (2012). Evaluating formational models for Late Archaic Shell Rings of the Southeastern United States using vertebrate fauna from the St. Catherines Shell Ring, St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 7(3), 338–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deetz, J. (1965). The dynamics of stylistic change in Arikara ceramics. Illinois S. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  31. DePratter, C. B. (1994). The chiefdom of Cofitachequi. In C. M. Hudson & C. C. Tesser (Eds.), The forgotten centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521–1704 (pp. 197–226). Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  32. Dietler, M., & Herbich, I. (1989). Tich Matek: the technology of Luo pottery production and the definition of ceramic style. World Archaeology, 21(1), 148–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dumond, D. E. (1977). Science in archaeology: the saints go marching in. American Antiquity, 42(3), 330–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunnell, R. C. (1984). Methodological issues in contemporary Americanist Archaeology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol. 2: Symposia and Invited Papers, (pp. 717–744). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Eastman, J. M. (2001). Life courses and gender among Late Prehistoric Siouan communities. In J. Eastman & C. B. Rodning (Eds.), Archaeological Studies of Gender in the Southeastern United States (pp. 57–77). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  36. Elliot, D. T. & Sassaman, K.E. (1995). Archaic Period archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Plain and Coastal Zone. Georgia Archaeological Research Design Paper No. 11. University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report.Google Scholar
  37. Ember, M. (1973). An archaeological indicator of matrilocal versus patrilocal residence. American Antiquity, 38(2), 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ensor, B. E. (2003). Kinship and marriage among the Omaha: 1886-1902. Ethnology, 42, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ensor, B. E. (2013). The archaeology of kinship. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ferguson, J. R. (2008). The when, where, and how of novices in craft production. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 15(1), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Finlay, N. (2013). Gender and lithic studies in prehistoric archaeology. In D. Bolger (Ed.), A companion to gender prehistory (pp. 142–160). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
  42. Finlay, N. (2015). Kid-knapped knowledge: changing perspectives on the child in lithic studies. Childhood in the Past, 8(2), 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Galloway, P. (1995). The Choctaw genesis, 1500–1700. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  44. Galloway, P. (1997). Where have all the menstrual huts gone? The invisibility of menstrual seclusion in the Late Prehistoric Southeast. In C. Claassen & R. Joyce (Eds.), Women in prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica (pp. 47–62). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gero, J. M. (1991). Genderlithics: women’s roles in stone tool production. In J. Gero & M. Conkey (Eds.), Engendering archaeology (pp. 163–192). Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. Gilmore, Z. I., Sassaman, K. E., & Glascock, M. D. (2018). Geochemical sourcing of fiber-tempered pottery and the organization of Late Archaic Stallings communities in the American Southeast. Journal of Archaeological Science, 99, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goad, S. I. (1979). Chert resources in Georgia: archaeological and geological perspectives. In University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report 21. Athens: Georgia.Google Scholar
  48. Goldstein, M., & Udry, C. (2008). The profits of power: land rights and agricultural investment in Ghana. Journal of Political Economy, 116(6), 981–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. (2006). House societies vs. kinship-shaped societies: an archaeological case for Iron Age Europe. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25(1), 144–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goodyear, A. C. (1979). A hypothesis for the use of cryptocrystalline raw materials among Paleo-indian groups of North America. In C. J. Ellis & J. Lothrop (Eds.), Eastern Paleo-Indian lithic resource use (pp. 1–10). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  51. Goodyear, A. C., House, J., & Ackerly, N. W. (1979). Laurens-Anderson: an archaeological study of the inter-riverine Piedmont. In Columbia: anthropological studies 4. South Carolina Insititute of Archaeology and: Anthropology.Google Scholar
  52. Gosselain, O. P. (1992). Technology and style: potters and pottery among Bafia of Cameroon. Man, 27(3), 559–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gosselain, O. P. (1998). Social and technical identity in a clay crystal ball. In M. T. Stark (Ed.), The archaeology of social boundaries (pp. 78–106). Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gougeon, R. A. (2017). Considering gender analogies in southeastern prehistoric archaeology. Southeastern Archaeology, 36(3), 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T. & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1)(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  56. Hayden, B., Franco, N., & Spafford, J. (1996). Evaluating lithic strategies and design criteria. In G. H. Odell (Ed.), Stone tools: theoretical insights into human prehistory (pp. 9–45). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heitman, C. C. (2016). ‘A mother for all the people’: feminist science and Chacoan archaeology. American Antiquity, 81(3), 471–489.Google Scholar
  58. Henry, V. G. (1994). Terminal Archaic and Early Woodland small stemmed points from the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Central States Archaeological Journal, 41(3), 139–141.Google Scholar
  59. Herbich, I., & Dietler, M. (2008). The long arm of the mother-in-law: learning, postmarital resocialization of women, and material culture style. In M. Stark, B. J. Bowser, & L. Horne (Eds.), Cultural Transmission and Material Culture: Breaking down boundaries (pp. 223–244). Alberquerque: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hill, J. N. (1970). Broken K Pueblo: prehistoric social organization in the American Southwest. In Tucson: Anthropological Papers 18. Arizona: University of.Google Scholar
  61. Hill, M. A., Lattanzi, G. D., Sanger, M., & Dussubieux, L. (2019). Elemental analysis of Late Archaic copper from the McQueen Shell Ring, St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 24, 1083–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hiscock, P. (2007). Looking the other way. A materialist/technological approach to classifying tools and implements, cores and retouched flakes. In S. MacPherron & J. Lindley (Eds.), Tools versus Cores? Alternative Approaches to Stone Tool Analysis (pp. 198–222). Newcastle, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  63. Holmes, W. H. (1903). Aboriginal pottery of the Eastern United States, In Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Report 20 (pp. 1–237). D.C.: Washington.Google Scholar
  64. Hudson, C. M. (1976). The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Keegan, W. F., & Maclachlan, M. D. (1989). The evolution of avunculocal chiefdoms: a reconstruction of Taino kinship and politics. American Anthropologist, 91, 613–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Keeley, L. H., & Keeley, L. H. (1982). Hafting and retooling: effects on the archaeological record. American Antiquity, 47(4), 798–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuhl, F. P., & Gardina, C. R. (1982). Eliptical Fourier features of a closed contour. Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 18, 236–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lechtman, H., & Merrill, R. S. (1977). Material culture: styles, organization, and dynamics of technology. New York: West Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  71. Lipo, C. P., Hunt, T. D., & Dunnell, R. C. (2012). Formal analyses and functional accounts of groundstone ‘plummets’ from Poverty Point, Louisiana. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(1), 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lipo, C. P., Hunt, T. L., Horneman, R., & Bonhomme, V. (2016). Weapons of war? Rapa Nui mata’a morphometric analyses. Antiquity, 90(349), 172–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lischka, J. J. (1975). Broken K revisited: a short discussion of factor analysis. American Antiquity, 40(2), 220–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Longacre, W. A. (1970). Reconstructing prehistoric Pueblo societies. Alberquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  75. Macleod, N. (2018). The quantitative assessment of archaeological artifact groups: beyond geometric morphometrics. Quaternary Science Reviews, 201, 319–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mauss, M. (1934). Les techniques du corps. Journal de Psychologie, 32(3–4).Google Scholar
  77. McAnany, P. A. (1995). Living with the ancestors: kinship and kingship in Ancient Maya society. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  78. McEvoy, B., Simms, K., & Bradley, D. (2008). Genetic investigation of the patrilineal kinship structure of Early Medieval Ireland. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 136(4), 415–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mills, B. J. (2018). Intermarriage, technological diffusion, and boundary objects in the U . S . Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 25, 1051–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Minar, C. J. (2001). Motor skills and the learning process: the conservation of cordage final twist direction in communities of practice. Journal of Anthropological Research, 57(4), 381–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moore, M. W. (2015). Bifacial flintknapping in the Northwest Kimberley, Western Australia. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 22(3), 913–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Perdue, T. (1998). Cherokee women: gender and culture change, 1700–1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  83. Peregrine, P. N. (2001). Matrilocality, corporate strategy, and the organization of production in the Chacoan world. American Antiquity, 66(1), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pfaffenberger, B. (1992). Social anthropology of technology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 491–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Plog, S. (1978). Social interaction and stylistic similarity: a reanalysis. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, 143–182.Google Scholar
  86. Qian, N. (2008). Missing women and the price of tea in China: the effect of sex-specific earnings on sex imbalance. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(3), 1251–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Quitmyer, I. R. & Jones, D. S. (2012). Annual incremental shell growth patterns in hard clams (Mercenaria spp.) from St. Catherines Island, Georgia: a record of seasonal and anthropogenic impact on zooarchaeological resources. In E. J. Reitz, I. R. Quitmyer, and D. H. Thomas (Eds) Seasonality and human mobility along the Georgia Bight (pp. 135–148). New York: American Museum of Natural History Anthropological Papers Number 97.Google Scholar
  88. Rodning, C. B. (1999). Archaeological perspectives on gender and women in traditional Cherokee society. Journal of Cherokee Studies, 20, 3–27.Google Scholar
  89. Rodning, C. B. (2001). Mortuary ritual and gender ideology in Protohistoric Southwestern North Carolina. In J. M. Eastman & C. B. Rodning (Eds.), Archaeological studies of gender in the Southeastern United States (pp. 77–100). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  90. Rohlf, F. J., & Marcus, L. F. (1993). A revolution in morphometrics. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8(4), 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roux, V., Bril, B., & Gilles, D. (1995). Skills and learning difficulties involved in stone knapping: the case of stone-bead knapping in Khambhat, India. World Archaeology, 27(1), 63–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Russo, M. (1998). Measuring sedentism with fauna: Archaic cultures along the Southwest Florida Coast. In T. R. Rocek & O. Bar-Yosef (Eds.), Seasonality and sedentism: archaeological perspectives from Old and New World sites (pp. 143–164). Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum.Google Scholar
  93. Russo, M. (2006). Archaic shell rings of the Southeast U.S, National Historic Landmarks - National Register of Historic Places Theme Study. Tallahassee: Report submitted to the National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service, Tallahassee: Copies available from Southeastern Archaeological Center.Google Scholar
  94. Russo, M. (2014). Ringed shell features of the southeastern united states. in M. Roksandic, S. M., de Souza, S. Eggers, M. Burchell, & D. Klokler, (Eds.) The cultural dynamics of shell-matrix sites (pp. 21–39). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  95. Sahlins, M. D. (2011). What kinship is (part one). Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 17(1), 2–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sanger, M. C. (2016). Investigating pottery vessel manufacturing techniques using radiographic imaging and computed tomography: studies from the Late Archaic American Southeast. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 9, 586–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sanger, M. C. (2017a). Coils, slabs, and molds: examining community affiliation between Late Archaic shell ring communities using radiographic imagery of pottery. Southeastern Archaeology, 36(2), 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sanger, M. C. (2017b). Evidence for significant subterranean storage at two hunter-gatherer sites: the presence of a mast-based economy in the American Southeast. American Antiquity, 82(1), 50–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sanger, M. C., & Ogden, Q. M. (2018). Determining the use of Late Archaic shell rings using lithic data: ‘ceremonial villages’ and the importance of stone. Southeastern Archaeology, 37(3), 232–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sanger, M. C., Hill, M. A., Lattanzi, G. D., Padgett, B. D., Larsen, C. S., Culleton, B. J., Kennett, D. J., Dussubieux, L., Napolitano, M. F., Lacombe, S., & Thomas, D. H. (2018). Early metal use and crematory practices in the American Southeast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 7672–7679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sanger, M. C., Padgett, B. D., Larsen, C. S., Hill, M. A., Lattanzi, G. D., Colaninno, C., Culleton, B. J., Kennett, D. J., Napolitano, M. F., Lacombe, S., Speakman, R. J., & Thomas, D. H. (2019a). Great Lakes Copper and Shared Mortuary Practices on the Atlantic Coast: Implications for Long Distance Exchange during the Late Archaic. American Antiquity 84(4): 594-609.Google Scholar
  102. Sanger, M. C., Quitmyer, I. R., Colaninno, C. E., Cannarozzi, N. R., & Ruhl, D. L. (2019b). Multiple-proxy seasonality indicators: an integrative approach to assess shell midden formations from Late Archaic shell rings in the coastal southeast North America. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology.
  103. Sassaman, K. E. (1993). Early pottery in the Southeast: tradition and innovation in cooking technology. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  104. Sassaman, K. E. (2004). Common origins and divergent histories in the early pottery traditions of the American Southeast. In R. Saunders & C. Hays (Eds.), Early pottery, technology, function, style, and interaction in the Lower Southeast (pp. 23–39). Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  105. Sassaman, K. E. (2006). People of the Shoals: Stallings Culture of the Savannah River Valley. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  106. Sassaman, K. E. (2010). The Eastern Archaic: historicized. Lanham, Maryland: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  107. Sassaman, K. E., Brooks, M. J., Hanson, G. T., & Anderson, D. G. (1990). Native American prehistory of the middle Savannah River Valley. Columbia: South Carolina University.Google Scholar
  108. Sassaman, K. E., Blessing, M. E., & Randall, A. R. (2006). Stallings Island revisited: new evidence for occupational history, community pattern, and subsistence technology. American Antiquity, 71(3), 539–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sassman, K. E., & Rudolphi, W. (2001). Communities of practice in the early ceramic traditions of the American Southeast. Journal of Anthropological Research, 57(4), 407–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sattler, R. A. (1995). Women’s status among the Muskogee and Cherokee. In L. F. Klein & L. A. Ackerman (Eds.), Women and power in Native North America (pp. 214–229). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  111. Saunders, R., & Hays, C. (2004). Themes in early pottery research. In R. Saunders & C. Hays (Eds.), Early pottery, technology, function, style, and interaction in the Lower Southeast (pp. 1–22). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  112. Schillaci, M. A. M., & Stojanowski, C. C. M. (2002). A reassessment of matrilocality in Chacoan culture. American Antiquity, 67(2), 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schneider, D. M. (1968). American kinship: a cultural account. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  114. Schneider, D. M. (1984). American kinship: a critique of the study of kinship. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Skibo, J. M., Schiffer, M. B., & Kowalski, N. (1989). Ceramic style analysis in archaeology and ethnoarchaeology: bridging the analytical gap. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 8(4), 388–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Speck, F. G. (1974). The Creek Indians of Taskigi Town. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. 2, Part 2. Millwood.Google Scholar
  117. Stanislawski, M. B., & Stanislawski, B. B. (1978). Hopi and Hopi-Tewa ceramic tradition networks. In I. Hodder (Ed.), The spatial organization of culture (pp. 61–76). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  118. Stojanowski, C. M., & Schillaci, M. A. (2006). Phenotypic approaches for understanding patterns of intracemetery biological variation. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 49, 49–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stout, D. (2002). Skill and cognition in stone tool production. Current Anthropology, 43(5), 693–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stout, D. (2005). The social and cultural context of stone-knapping skill acquisition. In B. Bril & V. Roux (Eds.), Stone knapping: the necessary conditions for a uniquely hominin behavior (pp. 331–340). Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monograph Series.Google Scholar
  121. Sullivan, L. P. (2001). Those men in the mounds: gender, politics, and mortuary rractices in Late Prehistoric Eastern Tennessee. In J. M. Eastman & C. B. Rodning (Eds.), Archaeological studies of gender in the Southeastern United States (pp. 101–126). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  122. Swanton, J. R. (1928). Social organization and social usages of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy. In J. W. Fewkes (Ed.), Forty-Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (pp. 23–472) Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  123. Swanton, J. R. (1946). The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology.Google Scholar
  124. Thompson, V. D., & Andrus, C. F. T. (2011). Evaluating mobility, monumentality, and feasting at the Sapelo Island Shell Ring Complex. American Antiquity, 76(2), 315–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Thulman, D. K. (2012). Discriminating Paleoindian point types from Florida using landmark geometric morphometrics. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(5), 1599–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Trocolli, R. (1999). Women leaders in Native North American Societies: invisible women of power. In T. L. Sweely (Ed.), Manifesting power: gender and the interpretation of power in archaeology (pp. 49–61). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  127. Turck, J. A., & Thompson, V. D. (2016). Revisiting the resilience of Late Archaic hunter-gatherers along the Georgia coast. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 43, 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Waggoner, J. C. (2009). Fiber-tempered pottery, soapstone vessels, and shifting alliances in the Interior Coastal Plain of the Late Archaic Southeast. Southeastern Archaeology, 28(2), 137–147.Google Scholar
  129. Watts, J. (2013). Traces of the individual in prehistory flintknappers and the distribution of projectile points in the Eastern Tonto Basin, Arizona. Advances in Archaeological Practice, 1(1), 25–36 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Weissner, P. (1983). Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points. American Antiquity, 48(2), 253–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Whittaker, J. C. (1994). Flintknapping: making and understanding stone tools. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  132. Widmer, R. J. (1994). The structure of Southeastern chiefdoms. In C. Hudson & C. C. Tesser (Eds.), The forgotten centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521–1704 (pp. 125–155). Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  133. Yanagisako, S. J., & Collier, J. F. (1987). Toward a unified analysis of gender and kinship. In J. F. Collier & S. J. Yanagisako (Eds.), Gender and kinship: Essays toward a unified analysis (pp. 14–50). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentBinghamton UniversityBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.S&ME Inc.Mount PleasantUSA

Personalised recommendations