Advertisement

Material Principles and Economic Relations Underlying Neolithic Axe Circulation in Western Europe

  • Selina Delgado-Raack
  • Roberto RischEmail author
  • Francisco Martínez-Fernández
  • Martí Rosas-Casals
Original Research

Abstract

Neolithic societies produced and circulated axeheads made out of different rock types over substantial distances. These tools were indispensable to their economic reproduction, but they also demanded considerable manufacturing efforts. The material properties of the raw materials chosen to produce axeheads had a direct effect on the grinding and polishing processes, as well as on the use life of these tools. However, surprisingly little is known about the criteria followed by these societies when it came to choosing adequate raw materials, or why certain rocks were exploited in greater volumes and circulated over larger distances than others. In order to determine the material parameters ruling axe production, circulation, and use, a range of different rock types was submitted to mechanical tests. For the first time, comparative values relating to the resistance to friction and to breakage are presented for some of the most important rock types used for the manufacture of axeheads by the Neolithic communities of Western Europe. These mechanical parameters allow us to approach hypothetical production and use values, which are then correlated with the distances travelled and the volumes of rock in circulation. This combination of petrographic, mechanical, and paleo-economic information leads to new understandings of the principles ruling Neolithic supply and distribution networks and the economic rationale behind them. It reveals how deeply the economic and symbolic meanings of these outstanding Neolithic artefacts were rooted in their production and use values.

Keywords

Neolithic exchange Value theory Stone axes Mechanical properties Petrographic characterisation Material sciences 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thin sections were prepared in the Geology Department, while SEM analyses were carried out at the Microscopy Sevice, both belonging to the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. We are grateful to Anne-Marie Pétrequin, Pierre Pétrequin, Vin Davis (†) and Kathina Lillios for providing samples from Italy, the British Isles, Ireland and Portugal. Anne-Marie and Pierre Pétrequin also guided us to the axe quarries of Plancher-les-Mines, where we spent a wonderful day taking samples. We extend our thanks to Juan Martínez Egea, from the inspection and certification company Applus (Barcelona), where mechanical tests were performed. Without his altruistic availability, this study would simply not have been viable. Tim Darvill, Pierre Pétrequin and three anonymous reviewers are also acknowledged for their helpful remarks and suggestions.

Funding Information

This research is made possible because of grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (HAR2017-85962-P) and the AGAUR of the Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR1044).

Supplementary material

10816_2019_9425_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3.62 mb)

References

  1. Aimar, A., Malerba, G., Giacobini, G., & Zamagni, B. (1996). Lo studio micriscopico delle superfici dei reperti archeologici. In La vie della pietra verde. L’industria litica levigata dulla Prehistoria nell’Italia settentrionale (pp. 271–276). Torino: Omega.Google Scholar
  2. Bernardini, F., de Min, A., Lenaz, D., Kasztovszky, Z., Lughi, V., Modesti, V., Yuniz, C., & Tecchiati, U. (2018). Polished stone axes from Varna/Nössingbühel and Castelrotto/Grondlboden, South Tyrol (Italy). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 10, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0612-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley, R. (1990). Perforated stone axe-heads in the British Neolithic: their distribution and significance. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 9(3), 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley, R., & Edmonds, M. R. (1993). Interpreting the axe trade : production and exchange in Neolithic Britain. New studies in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bradley, R., Meredith, P., Smith, J., & Edmonds, M. (1992). Rock physics and the Neolithic axe trade in Great Britain. Archaeometry, 34(2), 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Briggs, C. S. (2011). Neolithic near-identical twins: the ambivalent relationship between ‘factory’ rock and polished stone implements. In R. V. Davis & M. R. Edmonds (Eds.), Stone Axe Studies III (pp. 353–360).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buret, C. (1985). Les haches polies du Néolithique d’Auvernier (Neuchâtel, Siusse). Aspects quantitatives et qualitatives. In H. Ducasse (Ed.), Panorama 1985 des traitements de Données en Archéologie (pp. 47–76). Juan-les-Pins: APDCA.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, J. G. D. (1965). Traffic in stone axe and adze blades. Economic History Review, 18, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke, A. (2011). Does size matters? Stone axes from Orkney: their style and deposition. In T. Davis & M. Edmonds (Eds.), Stone Axe Studies III (pp. 309–322). Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clop, X. (2004). La gestión de los recursos minerales durante la Prehistoria Reciente en el noreste de la Península Ibèrica Cypsela. Cypsela, 15, 171–186.Google Scholar
  11. Clough, T. H. M., & Cummins, W. A. (1988). Stone axe studies II (CBA Resear.). London: Council of British Archaeology.Google Scholar
  12. Costa, L. J. (2007). L’obsidienne: un témoin d’echanges en Méditerranée préhistorique. Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  13. D’Amico, C. (2011). Greenstones employed for axe-blades and other prehistoric polished implements in Italy in Europe. Marmora: International Journal for Archaeology History and Archaeometry of Marbles and Stone.Google Scholar
  14. D’Amico, C., & Starnini, E. (2012). Hypothèses sur la circulation et les stratégies d’approvisionnement en « roches vertes » en Italie du Nord à la lumière des associations lithologiques présentes dans les lames de hache. In P.-A. de Labriffe & É. Thirault (Eds.), Produire des haches au néolitique. De la matière prmeière à l’abandon. Actes de la Table Ronde de Saint-Germain-enLaye. 16 et 17 Mars 2007 (pp. 235–244). Paris: Musée d’Archéologie Nationale.Google Scholar
  15. Darvill, T. (1989). The circulation of Neolithic stone and flint axes: a case study from Wales and the Mid-West of England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 55, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, V., & Edmonds, M. (2011). Stone axe studies III. Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Delgado-Raack, S. (2008). Prácticas económicas y gestión social de recursos (macro)líticos en la prehistoria reciente (III-I milenios ac) del Mediterráneo occidental. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Retrieved from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/tesis/2008/tdx-0212109-094347/sdr1de2.pdf
  18. Delgado-Raack, S., Gómez-Gras, D., & Risch, R. (2009). The mechanical properties of macrolithic artifacts: a methodological background for functional analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(9), 1823–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demoule, J. P. (2018). Soziale Komplexität im französischen Neolithikum. In H. Meller, D. Gronenborn, & R. Risch (Eds.), Surplus without the State. Political forms in Prehistory (pp. 45–65). Halle: Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie). Sachsen-Anhalt.Google Scholar
  20. Dempsey, C. (2013). An analysis of stone axe petrography and production at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. The Journal of Irish Archaeology, 22, 23–50.Google Scholar
  21. Dickson, F. P. (1981). Australian stone hatchets: a study in design and dynamics. Sydney: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Driscoll, K. (2013). Coastal communities in earlier prehistoric Ireland: ploughzone survey and the Tawin/Maree stone axes, Galway Bay. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics and Literature, 113(1), 29–65.  https://doi.org/10.3318/PRIAC.2013.113.04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Errera, M., Pétrequin, P., & Pétrequin, A.-M. (2012). Spectroradiométrie, reférentiel naturel et étude de la diffusion des haches alpines. In P. Pétrequin, S. Cassen, M. Errera, L. Klassen, A. Sheridan, & A. M. Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C. vol I (pp. 440–533). Besançon: Les Cahiers de la MSHE Ledoux.Google Scholar
  24. Fíguls, A. & Weller, O. (2017). La sal como dinamizador económico en la prehistoria reciente del nordeste peninsular. La Vall Salina de Cardona. Cuaternario y Geomorfología, 31 (1-2), 25-44.Google Scholar
  25. Giligny, F., & Bostyn, F. (2016). La hache de silex dans le Val de Seine. Production et diffusion des haches au Neolithique. Leiden: Sidestone Press.Google Scholar
  26. Godelier, M., & Garanger, J. (1973). Outils de pierre, outils d’acier chez les Baruya de Nouvelle-Guinée. L’Homme, 13(3), 187–220.Google Scholar
  27. Hampton, O. W. (1999). Culture of stone. Sacred and profane uses of stone among the Dani (College St.). Texas UP.Google Scholar
  28. Harding, F. (1983). An experiment to produce a ground flint axe. In G. Sieveking & M. H. Newcomer (Eds.), The human uses of flint and chert. 4th International Flint Symposium X (pp. 37–42). Brighton.Google Scholar
  29. Kerig, T., Edinborough, K., Downey, S., & Shennan, S. (2015). A radiocarbon chronology of European flint mines suggests a link to population patterns. In T. Kerig & S. Shennan (Eds.), Connecting Networks – Characterising contact by measuring lithic exchange in the European Neolithic (pp. 116–125). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  30. Klimscha, F. (2007). Die Verbreitung und Datierung kupferzeitlicher Silexbeile in Südosteuropa. Fernbeziehungen neolithischer Gesellschaften im 5. und 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Germania, 85, 275–305.Google Scholar
  31. Le Roux, C.-T. (1999). L’outillage de pierre polie en métadolérite du type A. Les ateliers de Plussulien (Côtes-d’Armor): production et diffusion au Néolithique dans la France de l’ouest et au-delà (Travaux du.). Rennes: Association des Travaux du Laboratoire d’Anthropologie.Google Scholar
  32. Lewis, R., Rahima, M., Cripps, J., Roubos, V., & Tsoraki, C. (2009). Wear of stone used to manufacture axes in the Neolithic settlement at Makriyalos in Northern Greece. Wear, 267(5–8), 1325–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis, R., Tsoraki, C., Broughton, J., Cripps, J. C., Afodun, S. A., Slatter, T., & Roubos, V. (2011). Abrasive and impact wear of stone used to manufacture axes in Neolithic Greece. Wear, 271(9–10), 2549–2560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2010.12.074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lillios, K. T. (1997). Amphibolite tools of the Portuguese Copper Age (3000–2000 BC): a geoarchaeological study of prehistoric economics and symbolism. Geoarchaeology: an international Journal, 12(3), 137–163.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1520-6548(199703)12:2<137::aidgea3>3.0.co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lull, V. (2007). Los objetos distinguidos: la arqueología como excusa. Barcelona: Bellaterra.Google Scholar
  36. Madsen, D. (1984). Flint axe manufacture in the Neolithic: experiments with grinding and polishing of thin-btted flint axes. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 3, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marx, K. (1962). Das Kapital – Erster Band, 1867. Berlin: Dietz Verlag.Google Scholar
  38. Masclans, A., Palomo, A., & Gibaja, J. (2017). Functional studies of Neolithic stone axes and adzes. Experimental programme and archaeological applications (Vol. 27, pp. 177–210). Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología de la Universidad de Granada.Google Scholar
  39. McCarthy, M. D. (1976). Australian aboriginal stone implements. Sydney: The Australian Museum Trust.Google Scholar
  40. Meller, H. (2015). Krieg im europäischem Neolithikum. In H. Meller & M. Schefzik (Eds.), Krieg - eine archäologische Spurensuche (pp. 109–116). Halle (Saale): Theiss.Google Scholar
  41. Menger, C. (1985). Principios de Economía Política (Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre, 1871). Barcelona: Orbis.Google Scholar
  42. Mills, P. R. (1993). An axe to grind: a functional analysis of anasazi stone axes from Sand Canyon Pueblo Ruin (5MT765), Southwestern Colorado. Kiva, 58(3), 393–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Orozco Köhler, T. (2000). Aprovisionamiento e Intercambio: análisis petrológico del utillaje pulimentado en la Prehistoria Reciente del País Valenciano (España) (British Ar.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Panyella, A., & Sabater, J. (1959). El pulimento de la piedra en un pueblo bantú, los fang ntumu de la Guinea española y su valoración cultural. In Congreso Nacional de Arqueología (pp. 79–86). Zaragoza.Google Scholar
  45. Patton, M. (1991). Stone axes of the Channel Islands: Neolithic exchange in an insular context. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 10, 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pelegrin, J. (2012). Observations sur la taille et le polissage de haches en sílex. In P.-A. Labriffe & É. Thirault (Eds.), Produire des haches au Néolithique : de la matière première à l’abandon Actes de la table ronde de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 et 17 mars 2007 (pp. 87–106). Paris: Musée d’Archéologie nationale Paris & Société préhistorique française.Google Scholar
  47. Pétrequin, P., & Jeunesse, A. M. (1995). La hache de pierre. Carrières vosgiennes et èchanges de lames polies le Néolithique (5400–2100 av. J.-C.). Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  48. Pétrequin, P., & Pétrequin, A. M. (1993). Ecologie d’un outil: la hache de pierre en Irian Jaya (Indonésie) (p. 12). Paris: CRNS Monographie du CRA.Google Scholar
  49. Pétrequin, P., Cassen, S., Croutsch, C., & Errera, M. (2002). La valorisation sociale des Longues Haches dans l’Europe néolithique. In J. Guilaine (Ed.), Matériaux, productions, circulations du Néolithique à l’Age du Bronze (pp. 67–98). Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  50. Pétrequin, P., Pétrequin, A. M., Errera, M., Jaime Riveron, O., Bailly, M., Gauthier, E., & Rossi, G. (2008). Premiers épisodes de la fabrication des longues haches alpines : ramassage de galets ou choc thermique sur des blocs. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 105(2), 309–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pétrequin, P., Sheridan, A., Cassen, S., Errera, M., Gauthier, E., Klassen, L., le Maux, N., Pailler, Y., Pétrequin, A.-M., & Rossy, M. (2011). Eclogite or jadeitite: The two colours involved in the transfer of alpine axeheads in western Europe. In V. Davis & M. Edmonds (Eds.), Stone Axe Studies III (pp. 55–82). Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pétrequin, P., Bontemps, C., Buthod-Ruffier, D., & Le Maux, N. (2012a). Approche expérimentale de la production des haches alpines. In P. Pétrequin, S. Cassen, M. Errera, L. Klassen, A. Sheridan, & A. M. Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C, vol. 1 (pp. 258–291). Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  53. Pétrequin, P., Cassen, S., Errera, M., Klassen, L., Sheridan, A., & Pétrequin, A. M. (Eds.). (2012b). Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C. vol. 1–2. Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  54. Pétrequin, P., Gauthier, E., Jaccottey, L., Jeudy, F., Maitre, A., & Vaquer, J. (2012c). Les exploitations de Réquista (Aveyron) et de Plancher-les-Mines (Haute-Saône, France). Exemples de diffusion de haches à moyenne distance. In P. Pétrequin, S. Cassen, M. Errera, L. Klassen, A. Sheridan, & A. M. Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C. (Vol. 1, pp. 544–573). Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  55. Pétrequin, P., Pétrequin, A. M., Errera, M., & Prodeo, F. (2012d). Prospections alpines et sources de matières premières. Historique et résultats. In P. Pétrequin, S. Cassen, M. Errera, L. Klassen, A. Sheridan, & A. M. Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Grandes haches alpines du Néolithique européen. Ve et IVe millénaires av. J.-C., vol 1 (pp. 46–183). Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  56. Pétrequin, P., Cassen, S., Chevillot, C., Cornen, G., Denaire, A., Duteil, Y., Pailler, Y., Prodéo, F., & Villes, A. (2015a). Bracelets en schiste et anneaux-disques en jadéitite, en serpentinite ou en amphibole. In Signes de richesse : inégalités au Néolithique, Catalogue exposition (pp. 35–42). Paris: Musée national de Préhistoire – Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Musée des Confluences, Lyon, Réunion des Musées Nationaux.Google Scholar
  57. Pétrequin, P., Pétrequin, A. M., Cassen, S., Errera, M., Gauthier, E., Prodéo, F., & Vaquer, J. (2015b). Les grandes haches polies en jades alpins. In Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Lyon: Musée national de Préhistoire, Musée des Confluences, Réunion des Musées Nationaux (Ed.), Signes de richesse : inégalités au Néolithique, Catalogue exposition (pp. 43–54). Paris.Google Scholar
  58. Pétrequin, P., Cassen, S., Errera, M., Pailler, Y., Prodeo, F., Pétrequin, A. M., & Sheridan, A. (2017a). Anneaux, marqueurs de statut, objets consacrés et quasi-monnaies. In P. Pétrequin, E. Gauthier, & A. M. Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Objets-signes et interprétations sociales des jades alpins dans l'Europe néolithique (Vol. 3, pp. 729–751). Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  59. Pétrequin, P., Cinquetti, M., & Buthod-Ruffier, D. (2017b). Le choix des jades alpins. In P. Pétrequin, E. Gauthier, & A. . Pétrequin (Eds.), Jade. Objets-signes et interprétations sociales des jades alpins dans l'Europe néolithique (Vol. 3, pp. 47–67). Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  60. Pétrequin, P., Gauthier, E., & Pétrequin, A. (Eds.) (2017c). Jade. Objets-signes et interprétations sociales des jades alpins dans l'Europe néolithique, vol. 3. Ledoux, Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté et Centre de Recherche Archéologique de la Vallée de l’Ain.Google Scholar
  61. Pétrequin, P., Cassen, S., Errera, M., Pailler, Y., Prodeo, F., Pétrequin, A.-M., & Sheridan, A. (2019). Disc-rings of Alpine rock in western Europe : typology, chronology, distribution and social significance. In R. Gleser & D. Hoffman (Eds.), Contacts, boundaries and innovation in the fifth millennium. Exploring developed Neolithic societies in central Europe and beyond (pp. 305–333). Leiden: Sidestine Press.Google Scholar
  62. Pitts, M. (1996). The stone axe in Neolithic Britain. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 62, 311–371.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00002838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ramminger, B. (2007). Wirtschaftsarchäologische Untersuchungen zu alt- und mittelneolithischen Felsgesteingeräten in Mittel- und Nordhessen: Archäologie und Rohmaterialversorgung. Rahden: Frankfurt/M.Google Scholar
  64. Renfrew, C. (1984). Trade as action at a distance. In C. Renfrew (Ed.), Approaches to social archaeology (pp. 86–134). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ricq-de Bouard, M. (1996). Pétrographie et societés néolithiques en France Mediterranéenne. L’outillage en pierre polie. Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
  66. Risch, R. (2002). Recursos naturales, medios de producción y explotación social. Un análisis económico de la industria lítica de Fuente Álamo (Almería), 2250–1400 antes de nuestra era. Iberia Archaeologica 3. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.Google Scholar
  67. Risch, R. (2011). Social and economic organisation of the stone axe production and distribution in the western Mediterranean. In V. Davis & M. Edmonds (Eds.), Stone Axe Studies III (pp. 99–118). Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Risch, R., & Martínez, F. (2008). Dimensiones naturales y sociales de la producción de hachas de piedra en el noreste de la Península Ibérica. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 65(1), 47–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Risch, R., Boivin, N., Petraglia, M., Gómez-Gras, D., Korisettar, R., & Fuller, D. (2011). The prehistoric axe factory at Sanganakallu-Kupgal (Bellary District), southern India. In V. Davis & M. Edmonds (Eds.), Stone Axe Studies III (pp. 189–214). Oxford: Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schefzik, M. (2015). Hinweise auf Massaker in der frühneolithischen Bandkeramik. In H. Meller & M. Schefzik (Eds.), Krieg - eine archäologische Spurensuche (pp. 171–176). Halle (Saale): Theiss.Google Scholar
  71. Schyle, D. (2010). Der Lousberg in Aachen - Ein jungsteinzeitlicher Feuersteintagebau mit Beilproduktion (Rheinische.). Mainz: Ph. von Zabern.Google Scholar
  72. Sheridan, A., Cooney, G., & Grogan, E. (1992). Stone axe studies in Ireland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 58(February 2014), 389–416.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00004242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Simmel, G. (1900). Philosophie des Geldes. München: Duncker & Humboldt. www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/Simmel/simmel_index.html.
  74. Smith, A. (1994). La riqueza de las naciones (English version of: an inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations, 1776). Madrid: Alianza.Google Scholar
  75. Steensberg, A. (1980). New Guinea gardens. a study of husbandry with parallels in prehistoric Europe. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  76. Thirault, E. (2005). The politics of supply: the Neolithic axe industry in Alpine Europe. Antiquity, 79, 34–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Torrence, R. (1986). Production and exchange of stone tools. Prehistoric obsidian in the Aegean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Wahl, J., & Trautmann, I. (2012). Neolithic massacre at Talheim: a pivotal find in conflict archaeology. In R. J. Schulting & L. Fibiger (Eds.), Sticks, stones, and broken bones. Neolithic violence in a European perspective (pp. 77–100). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Weller, O. (2015). First salt making in Europe: an overview from Neolithic times. Documenta Praehistorica, 42, 185-196.Google Scholar
  80. White, J. P., & Modjeska, N. (1978). Where do all the stone tools go? Some Examples and problems in their social and spatial distribution in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. In I. Hodder (Ed.), The spacial organization of culture. New approaches in archaeology (pp. 25–39). London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  81. Zimmermann, A. (1995). Austauschsysteme von Silexartefakten in der Bandkeramik Mitteleuropas. Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie (Vol. 26). Bonn: Habelt.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selina Delgado-Raack
    • 1
  • Roberto Risch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco Martínez-Fernández
    • 2
  • Martí Rosas-Casals
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Departament de PrehistòriaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de GeologiaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Sustainability Measurement and Modeling LaboratoryUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.ICREA-Complex Systems LaboratoryUniversitat Pompeu Fabra (GRIB)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations