Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1376–1438 | Cite as

Assumptions and Protocol of the Taxonomic Identification of Faunal Remains in Zooarchaeology: a North American Perspective

  • R. Lee LymanEmail author
Article

Abstract

Identification of the species of animal represented by ancient bones, teeth, and shells based on the size and shape of those materials is one of the most fundamental and foundational steps in paleozoology, yet only scattered comments in the literature regarding this matter have been published. The history of taxonomic identification of faunal remains began with researchers learning which anatomical traits were taxonomically diagnostic; this required the creation of reference collections of skeletons of known taxonomy. To identify the taxon of animal represented by an ancient bone or tooth or shell requires comparison between the taxonomically unknown and reference materials of known taxonomy. The key assumption underpinning taxonomic identification is that anatomical similarity in size and shape of a reference bone and a paleozoological bone signifies genetic similarity and, thus, taxonomic similarity. Reference collections must be large both in terms of the number of species represented and the number of skeletons per species. Anatomical traits are morphological (qualitative), metric (quantitative), and meristic (frequency). Reporting of the identification protocol followed, including the reference skeletons, illustrated guides, and anatomical traits used, is strongly recommended so that what are believed to be taxonomically diagnostic traits can be tested and either used, revised, or discarded by others. An online database listing what are believed to be taxonomically diagnostic traits will increase efficiency, enhance accuracy of identifications, and should prompt re-identification of collections studied in the past.

Keywords

Anatomical skeletal traits Paleozoology Reference collections Taxonomic identification Zooarchaeology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

For assistance in various ways, sincere thanks to Frank Bayham, Jack Broughton, Deanna Grimstead, and Todd VanPool. Thanks also to Denne Reed for telling me about a relevant unpublished thesis and to Andrew Barr for providing a copy of it. Four anonymous reviewers had several very good suggestions and also identified a couple serious errors in the initial draft. The discussion is better because of their sharp eyes and critical minds.

References

  1. Adams, B., & Crabtree, P. (2012). Comparative osteology: a laboratory and field guide of common North American animals. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, D. C., James Rohlf, F., & Slice, D. E. (2004). Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the ‘revolution’. Italian Journal of Zoology, 71, 5–16.Google Scholar
  3. Albarella, U. (2002). ‘Size matters’: how and why biometry is still important in zooarchaeology. In K. Dobney & T. O’Connor (Eds.), Bones and the man: studies in honour of Don Brothwell (pp. 51–62). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  4. Allmon, W. D. (2013). Species, speciation, and paleontology up to the modern synthesis: persistent themes and unanswered questions. Palaeontology, 56, 1199–1223.Google Scholar
  5. Allmon, W. D. (2016). Studying species in the fossil record: a review and recommendations for a more unified approach. In W. D. Allmon & M. M. Yacobucci (Eds.), Species and speciation in the fossil record (pp. 59–120). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ames, K. M., Richards, M. P., Speller, C. F., Yang, D. Y., Lee Lyman, R., & Butler, V. L. (2015). Stable isotope and ancient DNA analysis of dog remains from Cathlapotle (45CL1), a contact-era site on the Lower Columbia River. Journal of Archaeological Science, 57, 268–282.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, A. E., & Wallmo, O. C. (1984). Odocoileus hemionus. Mammalian Species, 219, 1–9.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, E. (1968). Fauna of the Little Box Elder Cave, Converse County, Wyoming. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Earth Sciences, 6, 1–60.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, E. (1984). Who’s who in the Pleistocene: a mammalian bestiary. In P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein (Eds.), Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (pp. 40–89). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  10. Badenhorst, S., & Plug, I. (2011). Unidentified specimens in zooarchaeology. Palaeontologia Africana, 46, 89–92.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, B. W., & Shaffer, B. S. (1999). Assumptions about species: a case study of tortoise bones from SE Texas. Journal of Field Archaeology, 26, 69–74.Google Scholar
  12. Baker, R. H. (1984). Origin, classification and distribution. In L. K. Halls (Ed.), White-tailed deer: ecology and management (pp. 1–18). Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  13. Balkwill, D. M. C., & Cumbaa, S. L. (1992). A guide to the identification of postcranial bones of Bos taurus and Bison bison. In Syllogeus 71. Canadian Museum of Nature: Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  14. Barnosky, A. D. (1990). Evolution of dental traits since latest Pleistocene in meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) from Virginia. Paleobiology, 16, 370–383.Google Scholar
  15. Barnosky, A. D., & Bell, C. J. (2003). Evolution, climatic change and species boundaries: perspectives from tracing Lemmiscus curtatus populations through time and space. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, 2585–2590.Google Scholar
  16. Barr, W. A. (2008). Taxonomic ambiguity in faunal analysis: theory, practical considerations, and implications. Master of Arts thesis, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  17. Bayham, F. E. (1982). A diachronic analysis of prehistoric animal exploitation at Ventana cave. Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  18. Beisaw, A. M. (2013). Identifying and interpreting animal bones: a manual. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bell, C. J., & Barnosky, A. D. (2000). The microtine rodents from the pit locality in Porcupine Cave, Park County, Colorado. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 69, 93–134.Google Scholar
  20. Bell, C. J., & Bever, G. S. (2006). Description and significance of the Microtus (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) from the type Irvington Fauna, Alamada County, California. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26, 371–380.Google Scholar
  21. Bell, C. J., Gauthier, J. A., & Bever, G. S. (2010). Covert biases, circularity, and apomorphies: a critical look at the North American Quaternary herpetofaunal stability hypothesis. Quaternary International, 217, 30–36.Google Scholar
  22. Bell, C. J., & Glennon, J. (2003). Arvicoline rodents from screaming Neotoma Cave, Southern Colorado Plateau, Apache County, Arizona, with comments on the Pleistocene biogeography of Lemmiscus curtatus. In B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, & R. W. Graham (Eds.), Ice age cave faunas of North America (pp. 54–63). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bell, C. J., Lundelius, E. L., Jr., Barnosky, A. D., Graham, R. W., Lindsay, E. H., Rues, D. R., Jr., Semken, H. A., Jr., Webb, S. D., & Zakrewski, R. J. (2004a). The Blancan, Irvingtonian, and Rancholabrean mammal ages. In M. O. Woodburne (Ed.), Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic mammals of North America: biostratigraphy and geochronology (pp. 232–314). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Bell, C. J., & Mead, J. I. (1998). Late Pleistocene microtine rodents from Snake Creek Burial Cave, White Pine County, Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist, 58, 82–86.Google Scholar
  25. Bell, C. J., & Repenning, C. A. (1999). Observations on dental variation in Microtus from the Cudahy ash pit fauna, Meade County, Kansas and implications for Irvingtonian microtine rodent biochronology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19, 757–766.Google Scholar
  26. Bell, C. J., Repenning, C. A., & Barnosky, A. D. (2004b). Arvicoline rodents from porcupine cave: identification, spatial distribution, taxonomic assemblages, and biochronologic significance. In A. D. Barnosky (Ed.), Biodiversity response to climate change in the Middle Pleistocene: the porcupine cave fauna from Colorado (pp. 207–263). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Betts, M. W., Maschner, H. D. G., Schou, C. D., Schlader, R., Holmes, J., Clement, N., & Smuin, M. (2011). Virtual zooarchaeology: building a web-based reference collection of northern vertebrates for archaeofaunal research and education. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 755–762.Google Scholar
  28. Bochenski, Z. M. (2008). Identification of skeletal remains of closely related species: the pitfalls and solutions. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 1247–1250.Google Scholar
  29. Bochenski, Z. M., & Tomek, T. (2009). A key for the identification of domestic bird bones in Europe: a preliminary determination. Kraków: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals.Google Scholar
  30. Bock, W. J. (1994). Concepts and methods in ecomorphology. Journal of Biosciences, 19, 403–413.Google Scholar
  31. Bover, P., Llamas, B., Thomson, V. A., Pons, J., Cooper, A., & Mitchell, K. J. (2018). Molecular resolution to a morphological controversy: the case of North American fossil muskoxen Bootherium and Symbos. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 129, 70–76.Google Scholar
  32. Bovy, K. (2011). Comments on Jon Driver’s “Identification, classification, & zooarchaeology”. Ethnobiology Letters, 2, 30.Google Scholar
  33. Bozell, J. R. (1991). Fauna from the Hulme site and comments on Central Plains tradition subsistence variability. Plains Anthropologist, 36, 229–253.Google Scholar
  34. Bozell, J. R., & Rogers, M. K. (1989). A great oasis fauna from Central Nebraska. Central Plains Archaeology, 1, 3–36.Google Scholar
  35. Brain, C. K. (1974). Some suggested procedures in the analysis of bone accumulations from Southern African Quaternary sites. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 29, 1–8.Google Scholar
  36. Brain, C. K. (1981). The hunters of the hunted? An introduction to African cave taphonomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Brainerd, G. W. (1939). An illustrated field key for the identification of mammal bones. Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 48, 324–328.Google Scholar
  38. Broughton, J. M. (1999). Resource depression and intensification during the Late Holocene, San Francisco Bay: evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound vertebrate fauna. In Anthropological records 32. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  39. Broughton, J. M., & Miller, S. D. (2016). Zooarchaeology and field ecology: a photographic atlas. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  40. Brown, C. L., & Gustafson C. L. (1979). A key to postcranial skeletal remains of cattle/bison, elk, and horse. Reports of investigations no. 57. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
  41. Buckley, M., Fraser, S., Herman, J., Melton, N. D., Mulville, J., & Pálsdóttir, A. H. (2014). Species identification of archaeological marine mammals using collagen fingerprinting. Journal of Archaeological Science, 41, 631–641.Google Scholar
  42. Buie, E. L., & Purdue, J. R. (1986). On the similarity of Odocoileus hemionus and O. virginianus mandibles. Plains Anthropologist, 31, 65–71.Google Scholar
  43. Bunn, H. T. (1982). Meat-eating and human evolution: studies on the diet and subsistence patterns of Plio-Pleistocene hominids in East Africa. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  44. Burns, J. A. (1982). Water vole Microtus richardsoni (Mammalia, Rodentia) from the Late Pleistocene of Alberta. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19, 628–631.Google Scholar
  45. Burt, William H. (1957). Appendix II: faunal remains. In Two Fremont site and their positions in southwestern prehistory, edited by D. C. Taylor, pp. 171–173. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 29. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  46. Burt, W. H. (1961). A fauna from an Indian site near Redington, Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy, 42, 115–116.Google Scholar
  47. Butler, V. L. (2011). Comments on identification, classification and zooarchaeology. Ethnobiology Letters, 2, 31.Google Scholar
  48. Butler, V. L., & Lee Lyman, R. (1996). Taxonomic identifications and faunal summaries: what should we be including in our faunal reports? Society for American Archaeology Bulletin, 14(1), 22.Google Scholar
  49. Campos, P. F., Sher, A., Mead, J. I., Tikhonov, A., Buckley, M., Collins, M., Willerslev, E., & Gilbert, M. T. P. (2010). Clarification of the taxonomic relationship of the extant and extinct Ovibovids, Ovibos, Praeovibos, Euceratherium and Bootherium. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 2123–2130.Google Scholar
  50. Cannon, D. Y. (1987). Marine fish osteology: a manual for archaeologists. Publication no. 18. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.Google Scholar
  51. Carlson, C. C. (1999). History of zooarchaeology in New England. In M. A. Levine, K. E. Sassaman, & M. S. Nassaney (Eds.), The archaeological northeast (pp. 171–181). Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.Google Scholar
  52. Carr, H. S. (1996). Precolumbian Maya exploitation and management of deer populations. In S. L. Fedick (Ed.), The managed mosaic: ancient Maya agriculture and resource use (pp. 251–261). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  53. Casteel, R. W. (1972). The use of fish remains in archaeology with special reference to the native freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  54. Chaplin, R. E. (1971). The study of animal bones from archaeological sites. London: Seminar Press.Google Scholar
  55. Charlton, S., Alexander, M., Collins, M., Milner, N., Mellars, P., O’Connell, T. C., Stevens, R. E., & Craig, O. E. (2016). Finding Britain’s last hunter-gatherers: a new biomolecular approach to ‘unidentifiable’ bone fragments utilising bone collagen. Journal of Archaeological Science, 73, 55–61.Google Scholar
  56. Chavez, A. (2008). Comparative vertebral morphology in medium-sized North American Artiodactyla. The Artifact 46:1–17. El Paso Archaeological Society, El Paso.Google Scholar
  57. Chomko, S. A. (1980). Identification of north American rodent teeth. In B. Miles Gilbert (Ed.), Mammalian osteology (pp. 72–99). Laramie, WY: Privately published.Google Scholar
  58. Chomko, S. A. (1990). Identification of North American rodent teeth. In B. Miles Gilbert (Ed.), Mammalian osteology (pp. 72–99). Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  59. Churcher, C. S. (1984). Sangamona: the furtive deer. In Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: a volume in memorial to John E. Guilday, edited by Hugh H. Genoways and Mary R. Dawson, pp. 316–331. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication no. 8. Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  60. Clason, A. T. (1972). Some remarks on the use and presentation of archaeozoological data. Helinium, 12, 139–153.Google Scholar
  61. Cornwall, I. W. (1956). Bones for the archaeologist. London: Phoenix House.Google Scholar
  62. Cowan, I. M. T. (1936). Distribution and variation in deer (genus Odocoileus) of the Pacific coastal region of North America. California Fish and Game, 22, 155–246.Google Scholar
  63. Cowan, I. M. T. (1956). What and where are the mule and black-tailed deer? In W. P. Taylor (Ed.), The deer of North America: the white-tailed, mule and black-tailed deer, genus Odocoileus (pp. 334–359). Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole.Google Scholar
  64. Coy, J. (1978). Comparative collections for zooarchaeology. In Research problems in zooarchaeology, edited by D. R. Brothwell, K. D. Thomas, and Juliet Clutton-Brock, pp. 143–145. Institute of Archaeology Occasional Publication no. 3. University of London.Google Scholar
  65. Czaplewski, N. J., Mead, J. I., Bell, C. J., Peachey, W. D., & The-Lung, K. (1999). Papago Springs cave revisited, part II: vertebrate paleofauna. Occasional Papers of the Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, 5, 1–41.Google Scholar
  66. Dallman, J. E. (1983). A choice of diet: response to climatic change. Report no. 16. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  67. Davis, L. C. (1987a). Late Pleistocene/Holocene environmental changes in the Central Plains of the United States: the mammalian record. In Late Quaternary mammalian biogeography and environments of the Great Plains and prairies, edited by Russell W. Graham, Holmes A. Semken, Jr., and Mary Ann Graham, pp. 88–143. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers vol. 22. Springfield.Google Scholar
  68. Davis, S. J. M. (1987b). The archaeology of animals. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Demarais, S., Miller, K. V., & Jacobson, H. A. (2000). White-tailed deer. In S. Demarais & P. R. Krausman (Eds.), Ecology and management of large mammals in North America (pp. 601–628). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  70. Dombrosky, J. (2015). The descriptive paleontology and applied ichthyoarchaeology of the Ponsipa fauna. Master of Science thesis, University of North Texas, Denton.Google Scholar
  71. Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. (2012). Critical review of the MNI (minimum number of individuals) as a zooarchaeological unit of quantification. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 4, 47–59.Google Scholar
  72. Driver, J. C. (1982). Minimum standards for reporting of animal bones in salvage archaeology: Southern Alberta as a case study. In P. D. Francis & E. C. Poplin (Eds.), Directions in archaeology: a question of goals (pp. 199–209). Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Archaeology Association.Google Scholar
  73. Driver, J. C. (1992). Identification, classification and zooarchaeology. Circaea, 9, 35–47.Google Scholar
  74. Driver, J. C. (1993). Zooarchaeology in British Columbia. BC Studies, 99, 77–105.Google Scholar
  75. Driver, J. C. (2011). Identification, classification and zooarchaeology. Ethnobiology Letters, 2, 19–39 [reprint of Driver 1992, with comments by others].Google Scholar
  76. Duffield, L. F. (1969). The vertebrate faunal remains from the School Land I and School Land II sites, Delaware County, Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society, 18, 47–66.Google Scholar
  77. Elbroch, M. (2006). Animal skulls: a guide to North American species. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  78. Emery, K. K. (2004). In search of assemblage comparability: methods in Maya zooarchaeology. In Maya zooarchaeology: new directions in method and theory, edited by Kitty F. Emery, pp. 15–33. Costen Institute of Archaeology, Monograph 51. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  79. Faith, J. T. (2013). Ungulate diversity and precipitation history since the last glacial maximum in the Western Cape, South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews, 68, 191–199.Google Scholar
  80. Faith, J. T., & Lee Lyman, R. (2019). Paleozoology and paleoenvironments: fundamentals, assumptions, and techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Findley, J. S. 1964. Paleoecologic reconstruction: vertebrate limitations. In The reconstruction of past environments, assembled by James J. Hester and James Schoenwetter, pp. 23–25. Fort Burgwin Research Center Publication No. 3. Taos, NM.Google Scholar
  82. Fisher, J. W., Jr. (1980). Guide to the astragalus and naviculo-cuboid. In B. Miles Gilbert (Ed.), Mammalian osteology (pp. 56–62). Laramie, WY: Privately published.Google Scholar
  83. Fisher, J. W. Jr. (1984). Medium-sized artiodactyl butchering and processing. In The dead Indian creek site: an archaic occupation in the Absaroka Mountains of Northeastern Wyoming, edited by George C. Frison and Danny N. Walker, pp. 63–82. The Wyoming Archaeologist 27(1–2).Google Scholar
  84. Flannery, K. V. (1967). The vertebrate fauna and hunting patterns. In D. Byers (Ed.), The prehistory of the Tehuacan Valley (pp. 132–178). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  85. Foley, R. L. (1984). Late Pleistocene (Woodfordian) vertebrates from the driftless area of southwestern Wisconsin, the Moscow fissure local fauna. Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations no. 39. Springfield.Google Scholar
  86. Foote, M., & Miller, A. I. (2007). Principles of paleontology (3rd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  87. Ford, P. J. (1990). Antelope, deer, bighorn sheep and mountain goats: a guide to the carpals. Journal of Ethnobiology, 10, 169–181.Google Scholar
  88. Fox, R. C. (1986). Species in paleontology. Geoscience Canada, 13, 73–84.Google Scholar
  89. Friedman, E. (1973). Preparation of faunal specimens. American Antiquity, 38, 113–114.Google Scholar
  90. Frison, G. C. (2004). Survival by hunting: prehistoric human predators and animal prey. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  91. Gifford-Gonzalez, D. (1991). Bones are not enough: analogues, knowledge, and interpretive strategies in zooarchaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 10, 215–254.Google Scholar
  92. Gifford-Gonzalez, D. (2018). An introduction to zooarchaeology. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Gilbert, B. M. (1973). Mammalian osteo-archaeology: North America. Columbia, MO: Missouri Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  94. Gilbert, B. M. (1980). Mammalian osteology. Laramie, WY: Privately published.Google Scholar
  95. Gilbert, B. M. (1990). Mammalian osteology. Columbia, MO: Missouri Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  96. Gillson, L. (2015). Biodiversity conservation and environmental change: using palaeoecology to manage dynamic landscapes in the Anthropocene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Gilmore, R. M. (1946a). To facilitate cooperation in the identification of mammal bones from archaeological sites. American Antiquity, 12, 49–50.Google Scholar
  98. Gilmore, R. M. (1946b). Mammals in archaeological collections from southwestern Pennsylvania. Journal of Mammalogy, 27, 227–234.Google Scholar
  99. Gilmore, R. M. (1947). Report on a collection of mammal bones from archaeologic cave-sites in Coahuila, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 28, 147–165.Google Scholar
  100. Gilmore, R. M. (1949). The identification and value of mammal bones from archaeologic excavations. Journal of Mammalogy, 30, 163–169.Google Scholar
  101. Gobalet, K. W. (2001). A critique of faunal analysis; inconsistency among experts in blind tests. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28, 377–386.Google Scholar
  102. Graham, R. W. (1981). Preliminary report on Late Pleistocene vertebrates from the Selby and Dutton archaeological/paleontological sites, Yuma County, Colorado. Contributions to Geology 20:33–56. University of Wyoming, Laramie.Google Scholar
  103. Graham, R. W. (2001). Comment on “Skeleton of extinct North American sea mink (Mustela macrodon)” by Mead et al. Quaternary Research, 56, 419–421.Google Scholar
  104. Graham, R. W., & Lundelius, E. L. Jr (1994). FAUNMAP: a database documenting Late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers vol. 25. Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  105. Graham, R. W., & H. A. Semken, Jr. (1987). Philosophy and procedures for paleoenvironmental studies of quaternary mammalian faunas. In Late Quaternary mammalian biogeography of the Great Plains and prairies, edited by Russell W. Graham, Holmes A. Semken, Jr., and Mary Ann Graham, pp. 1–17. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers vol. 22. Springfield.Google Scholar
  106. Grayson, D. K. (1973). The avian and mammalian remains from Nightfire Island. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.Google Scholar
  107. Grayson, D. K. (1977a). On the Holocene history of some Great Basin lagomorphs. Journal of Mammalogy, 58, 507–513.Google Scholar
  108. Grayson, D. K. (1977b). A review of the evidence for Early Holocene turkeys in the northern Great Basin. American Antiquity, 42, 110–114.Google Scholar
  109. Grayson, D. K. (1984). Time of extinction and nature of adaptation of the noble marten, Martes americana nobilis. In Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: a volume in memorial to John E. Guilday, edited by Hugh H. Genoways and Mary R. Dawson, pp. 233–240. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 8. Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  110. Grayson, D. K. (1988). Danger cave, last supper cave, and hanging rock shelter: the faunas. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 66(1), 1–130.Google Scholar
  111. Greenlee, D. M., & Dunnell, R. C. (2010). Identification of fragmentary bone from the Pacific. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37, 957–970.Google Scholar
  112. Guilday, J. E. (1964). New Paris no. 4: a Late Pleistocene cave deposit in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. National Speleological Society Bulletin, 26, 121–194.Google Scholar
  113. Guilday, J. E. (1967). Differential extinction during Late-Pleistocene and recent times. In P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause (pp. 121–140). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Guilday, J. E. (1969). Small mammal remains from the Wasden site (owl cave), Bonneville County, Idaho. Tebiwa, Journal of the Idaho State University Museum, 12(1), 47–57.Google Scholar
  115. Guilday, J. E. (1971). Biological and archaeological analysis of bones from a 17th century Indian village (46PU31), Putnam County, West Virginia. Report of archaeological investigations No. 4. West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, WV.Google Scholar
  116. Guilday, J. E. (1982). Dental variation in Microtus xanthognathus, M. chrotorrhinus, and M. pennsylvanicus (Rodentia: Mammalia). Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 51, 211–230.Google Scholar
  117. Guilday, J. E., & Bender, M. S. (1960). Late Pleistocene records of the yellow-cheeked vole, Microtus xanthognathus (Leach). Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 35, 315–330.Google Scholar
  118. Guilday, J. E., Hamilton, H. W., Anderson E., and Parmalee P. W. (1978). The Baker Bluff cave deposit, Tennessee, and the Late Pleistocene faunal gradient. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Bulletin 11. Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  119. Gustafson, C. E. (1979). Preface. In A key to postcranial skeletal remains of cattle/bison, elk, and horse, by Christopher L. Brown and Carl E. Gustafson, pp. iii–vii. Reports of Investigations no. 57. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
  120. Hadly, E. A. (1997). Evolutionary and ecological response of pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) to Late-Holocene climatic change. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 60, 277–296.Google Scholar
  121. Hall, E. R. (1981). The mammals of North America (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  122. Hall, E. R., & Kelson, K. R. (1959). The mammals of North America. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  123. Hallberg, G. R., Semken, H. A., Jr., & Davis, L. C. (1974). Quaternary records of Microtus xanthognathus (Leach), the yellow-cheeked vole, from northwestern Arkansas and southeastern Iowa. Journal of Mammalogy, 55, 640–645.Google Scholar
  124. Hamilton-Dyer, S. (2013). The reference collection—is it dead? The role of the physical reference collection in the digital age. Archaeofauna, 22, 75–82.Google Scholar
  125. Harris, A. H. (1963). Vertebrate remains and past environmental reconstruction in the Navajo Reservoir District. Papers in Anthropology No. 11. Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  126. Harris, A. H. (1987). Reconstruction of mid-Wisconsin environments in southern New Mexico. National Geographic Research, 3(2), 142–151.Google Scholar
  127. Harris, A. H. (1988). Late Pleistocene and Holocene Microtus (Pitymys) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 8, 307–313.Google Scholar
  128. Hesse, B., & Wapnish, P. (1985). Animal bone archaeology: from objectives to analysis. Washington, DC: Taraxacum.Google Scholar
  129. Hildebrand, M. (1955). Skeletal differences between deer, sheep, and goats. California Fish and Game, 42, 327–346.Google Scholar
  130. Hillis, D. M. (1987). Molecular versus morphological approaches to systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18, 23–42.Google Scholar
  131. Hillson, S. (1992). Mammal bones and teeth: an introductory guide to methods of identification. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London.Google Scholar
  132. Hodder, I. (1982). The present past: an introduction to anthropology for archaeologists. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  133. Hoffmeister, D. F. (1962). The kinds of deer, Odocoileus, in Arizona. American Midland Naturalist, 67, 45–64.Google Scholar
  134. Holbrook, S. J. (1982). Ecological inferences from mandibular morphology of Peromyscus maniculatus. Journal of Mammalogy, 63, 399–408.Google Scholar
  135. Horsburgh, K. A. (2015). Molecular anthropology: the judicial use of genetic data in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 56, 141–145.Google Scholar
  136. Jacobson, J. A. (2003). Identification of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) postcranial remains as a means of determining human subsistence strategies. Plains Anthropologist, 48, 287–297.Google Scholar
  137. Jacobson, J. A. (2004). Determining human ecology on the plains through the identification of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) postcranial remains. Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  138. James, S. R. (1983). Surprise Valley settlement and subsistence: a critical review of the faunal evidence. Journal of California and Great Basin anthropology, 5, 156–175.Google Scholar
  139. Johnson, M. L., & Johnson, S. (1982). Voles: Microtus species. In J. A. Chapman & G. A. Feldhamer (Eds.), Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics (pp. 326–354). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Johnson, P. C. (1972). Mammalian remains associated with Nebraska phase earth lodges in Mills County, Iowa. Master of Science thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  141. Kasper, S. (1992). Mammals from the Late Pleistocene Carrol Creek local fauna, Donley Co., Texas. Southwestern Naturalist, 37, 54–64.Google Scholar
  142. Kays, R. W., & Wilson, D. E. (2009). Mammals of North America (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Kellogg, R. (1956). What and where are the whitetails? In W. P. Taylor (Ed.), The deer of North America: the white-tailed, mule and black-tailed deer, genus Odocoileus (pp. 31–55). Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole.Google Scholar
  144. Kemp, C. (2017). The lost species: great expeditions in the collections of natural history museums. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  145. Kie, J. G., & Czech, B. (2000). Mule and black-tailed deer. In S. Demarais & P. R. Krausman (Eds.), Ecology and management of large mammals in North America (pp. 629–657). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  146. Klein, R. G., & Cruz-Uribe, K. (1984). The analysis of animal bones from archaeological sites. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  147. Klippel, W. E. (1987). Microtus pennsylvanicus from the Holocene of the Nashville Basin. American Midland Naturalist, 118, 214–216.Google Scholar
  148. Koch, A. (1995). The McIntosh Fauna: late prehistoric exploitation of lake and prairie habitats in the Nebraska Sand Hills. Plains Anthropologist, 40, 39–60.Google Scholar
  149. Kurtén, B., & Anderson, E. (1980). Pleistocene mammals of North America. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Lang, R. W., & Harris, A. H. (1984). The faunal remains from Arroyo Hondo Pueblo, New Mexico: a study in short-term subsistence change. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  151. Lau, H., & Kansa, S. W. (2018). Zooarchaeology in the era of big data: contending with interanalyst variation and best practices for contextualizing data for informed reuse. Journal of Archaeological Science, 95, 33–39.Google Scholar
  152. Lawrence, B. (1951). Post-cranial skeletal characters of deer, pronghorn, and sheep-goat with notes on Bos and Bison. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 35(3(2)), 7–40.Google Scholar
  153. Lawrence, B. (1957). Zoology. In The identification of non-artifactual archaeological materials, edited by Walter W. Taylor, pp. 41–42. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Publication 565.Google Scholar
  154. Lawrence, B. (1973). Problems in the inter-site comparisons of faunal remains. In J. Matolcsi (Ed.), Domestikationsforschung und geschichte der haustiere (pp. 397–402). Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.Google Scholar
  155. LeFebvre, M. J., & Sharpe, A. E. (2018). Contemporary challenges in zooarchaeological specimen identification. In C. M. Giovas & M. J. LeFebvre (Eds.), Zooarchaeology in practice: case studies in methodology and interpretation in archaeological analysis (pp. 35–57). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  156. Leopold, A. S. (1954). Dichotomous forking in the antlers of white-tailed deer. Journal of Mammalogy, 35, 599–600.Google Scholar
  157. Levinton, J. S. (2001). Genetics, paleontology, and macroevolution (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  158. Livingston, S. D. (1987). Prehistoric biogeography of white-tailed deer in Washington and Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management, 51, 649–654.Google Scholar
  159. Lubinski, P., & Hale, T. (2018). Identifying and siding the stylohyoid bone for North American artiodactyls. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 28, 364–374.Google Scholar
  160. Lucas, S. G. (1986). Proper syntax when using aff. and cf. in taxonomic statements. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 6, 202.Google Scholar
  161. Lundelius, E. L. Jr. (1964). The use of vertebrates in paleoecological reconstruction. In The reconstruction of past environments, assembled by James J. Hester and James Schoenwetter, pp. 26–31. Fort BurgwinResearch Center Publication No. 3. Taos, NM.Google Scholar
  162. Lundelius, E. L. Jr. (1979). Post-Pleistocene mammals from Pratt cave and their environmental significance. In Biological investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, edited by Genoways, H. H. and Baker, R. J. pp. 239–258. National Park Service, Proceedings and Transactions Series, No. 4.Google Scholar
  163. Lupo, K. (2011). Comments on identification, classification and zooarchaeology. Ethnobiology Letters, 2, 32.Google Scholar
  164. Lyman, R. L. (1979). Faunal analysis: an outline of method and theory with some suggestions. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, 13, 22–35.Google Scholar
  165. Lyman, R. L. (1997). Prehistoric dental abnormalities in Microtus cf. pennsylvanicus of eastern Washington. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 14, 147–149.Google Scholar
  166. Lyman, R. L. (2002a). Taxonomic identification of zooarchaeological remains. The Review of Archaeology, 23(2), 13–20.Google Scholar
  167. Lyman, R. L. (2002b). Units in archaeology and paleontology: identifying unknowns. The Missouri Archaeologist, 63, 7–20.Google Scholar
  168. Lyman, R. L. (2005). Zooarchaeology. In Handbook of archaeological methods, vol. II, edited by Maschner, H. D. G. and Chippindale, C., pp. 835–870. AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  169. Lyman, R. L. (2006). Late prehistoric and early historic abundance of Columbian white-tailed deer, Portland Basin, Washington and Oregon, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 278–282.Google Scholar
  170. Lyman, R. L. (2011). Comments on Jon Driver’s “Identification, classification, and zooarchaeology”. Ethnobiology Letters, 2, 33–34.Google Scholar
  171. Lyman, R. L. (2012a). Human-behavioral and paleoecological implications of terminal Pleistocene fox remains at the Marmes site (45FR50), eastern Washington State, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews, 41, 39–48.Google Scholar
  172. Lyman, R. L. (2012b). The influence of screen mesh size, and size and shape of rodent teeth on recovery. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, 1854–1861.Google Scholar
  173. Lyman, R. L. (2013a). Paleoindian exploitation of mammals in eastern Washington State. American Antiquity, 78, 227–247.Google Scholar
  174. Lyman, R. L. (2013b). Taxonomic composition and body-mass distribution in the terminal Pleistocene mammalian fauna from the Marmes site, southeastern Washington State, U.S.A. Paleobiology, 39, 345–359.Google Scholar
  175. Lyman, R. L. (2015). The history of “laundry lists” in North American zooarchaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 39, 42–50.Google Scholar
  176. Lyman, R. L. (2016). Theodore E. White and the development of zooarchaeology in North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  177. Lyman, R. L. (2017). Paleoenvironmental reconstruction from faunal remains: ecological basics and analytical assumptions. Journal of Archaeological Research, 25, 315–371.Google Scholar
  178. Lyman, R. L. (2018). Actualistic neotaphonomic research on bone modifying animal species: an analysis of the literature. Palaios, 33, 542–554.Google Scholar
  179. Lyman, R. L., O’Brien, M. J., & Dunnell, R. C. (1997). The rise and fall of culture history. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  180. Manin, A., & Lefèvre, C. (2016). The use of animals in northern Mesoamerica, between the Classic and the Conquest (200 – 1521 AD): an attempt at regional synthesis on Central Mexico. Anthropozoologica, 51, 127–147.Google Scholar
  181. Manzano, B. L., Means, B. K., Begley, C. T., & Zechini, M. (2015). Using digital 3D scanning to create “artifictions” of the passenger pigeon and harelip sucker, two extinct species in eastern North America: the future examines the past. Ethnobiology Letters, 6, 15–24.Google Scholar
  182. Martin, P. S. (1967). Prehistoric overkill. In P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause (pp. 75–120). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  183. Martin, P. S., & Guilday, J. E. (1967). A bestiary for Pleistocene biologists. In P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause (pp. 1–62). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Martin, R. A. (1987). Notes on the classification and evolution of some North American fossil Microtus (Mammalia; Rodentia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7, 270–283.Google Scholar
  185. Martin, R. A. 1991. Evolutionary relationships and biogeography of Late Pleistocene prairie voles from the eastern United States. In Beamers, bobwhites, and blue-points: tributes to the career of Paul W. Parmalee, edited by James R. Purdue, Walter E. Klippel, and Bonnie W. Styles, pp. 251–260. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers vol. 23. Springfield.Google Scholar
  186. Maser, C., & Storm, R. M. (1970). A key to microtinae of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis: Oregon State University Bookstore.Google Scholar
  187. Mayr, E. (1942). Systematics and the origin of species. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  188. Mayr, E. (1963). Animal species and evolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Mayr, E. (1970). Populations, species, and evolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  190. McDonald, J. N., & Clayton E. R. (1989). The autochthonous North American musk oxen Bootherium, Symbos, and Gidleya (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Smithsonian contributions to paleobiology 66. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  191. McGuire, J. L. (2011). Identifying California Microtus species using geometric morphometrics documents Quaternary geographic range contractions. Journal of Mammalogy, 92, 1383–1394.Google Scholar
  192. Mead, J. I., & Spiess, A. E. (2001). Reply to Russell Graham about Mustela macrodon. Quaternary Research, 56, 422–423.Google Scholar
  193. Mead, J. I., Spiess, A. E., & Sobolik, K. D. (2000). Skeleton of extinct North American sea mink (Mustela macrodon). Quaternary Research, 53, 247–262.Google Scholar
  194. Meadow, R. H. (2000). Zooarchaeology. In L. Ellis (Ed.), Archaeological method and theory: an encyclopedia (pp. 675–682). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  195. Medlock, R. C. (1975). Faunal analysis. In The Cache river archaeological project: an experiment in contract archaeology, edited by Michael B. Schiffer and John H. House, pp. 223–242. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series No. 8. Fayetteville.Google Scholar
  196. Meighan, C. W., Pendergast, D. M., Swartz, B. K., Jr., & Wissler, M. D. (1958). Ecological interpretation in archaeology, part I. American Antiquity, 24, 1–23.Google Scholar
  197. Merritt, S. R., & Davis, K. M. (2017). Diagnostic properties of hammerstone-broken long bone fragments, specimen identifiability, and Early Stone Age butchered assemblage interpretation. Journal of Archaeological Science, 85, 114–123.Google Scholar
  198. Miller, L. H. (1957). Bird remains from an Oregon Indian midden. Condor, 59, 59–63.Google Scholar
  199. Miller, L. H. (1960). Some Indian midden bird from the Puget Sound area. Wilson Bulletin, 72, 392–397.Google Scholar
  200. Miller, L. H. (1961). Bird remains from Indian middens in the Dakota area. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science, 60, 122–126.Google Scholar
  201. Miller, L. H. (1963). Birds and Indians in the west. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science, 62, 178–191.Google Scholar
  202. Miller, L. H. (1965). Bird remains from an archaeological site in the Beaverhead Mountains of southeastern Idaho. Tebiwa, Journal of the Idaho State University Museum, 8(1), 17–20.Google Scholar
  203. Miller, W., III. (2016). The species problem: concepts, conflicts, and patterns preserved in the fossil record. In W. D. Allmon & M. M. Yacobucci (Eds.), Species and speciation in the fossil record (pp. 28–58). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  204. Molloy, P. (1993). Hunting practices at an Historic Plains Indian Village: Kansa ethnoarchaeology and faunal analysis. Plains Anthropologist, 38, 187–197.Google Scholar
  205. Morales, A., & Rosenlund, K. (1979). Fish bone measurements: an attempt to standardize the measuring of fish bones from archaeological sites. Copenhagen: Steenstrupia.Google Scholar
  206. Morales-Muñiz, A. (1993). Ornithoarchaeology: the various aspects of the classification of bird remains from archaeological sites. Archaeofauna, 2, 1–13.Google Scholar
  207. Mori, J. L. (1970). Procedures for establishing a faunal collection to aid in archaeological analysis. American Antiquity, 35, 387–389.Google Scholar
  208. Morin, E., Ready, E., Boileau, A., Beauval, C., & Coumont, M.-P. (2017). Problems of identification and quantification in archaeozoological analysis, part I: insights from a blind test. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 24, 886–937.Google Scholar
  209. Morlan, R. E. (1984). Biostratigraphy and biogeography of Quaternary microtine rodents from northern Yukon Territory, Eastern Beringia. In Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: a volume in memorial to John E. Guilday, edited by Hugh H. Genoways and Mary R. Dawson, pp. 184–199. Special Publication no. 8. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  210. Morlan, R. E. (1989). Paleoecological implications of Late Pleistocene and Holocene microtine rodents from the bluefish caves, northern Yukon Territory. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 26, 149–156.Google Scholar
  211. Morlan, R. E. (1996). Late and middle Pleistocene vertebrate fossils from Old Crow Basin, locality CRH 15, northern Yukon Territory. In K. M. Stewart & K. L. Seymour (Eds.), Palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of late Cenozoic mammals: tributes to the career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher (pp. 483–521). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  212. Mulligan, C. J. (2006). Anthropological applications of ancient DNA: problems and prospects. American Antiquity, 71, 365–380.Google Scholar
  213. Newman, M. E., Parboosingh, J. S., Bridge, P. J., & Ceri, H. (2002). Identification of archaeological animal bone by PCR/DNA analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 77–84.Google Scholar
  214. Nims, R., & Butler, V. L. (2017). Assessing reproducibility in faunal analysis blind tests: a case study from northwestern North America. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 11, 750–761.Google Scholar
  215. Niven, L., Steele, T. A., Finke, H., Gernat, T., & Hublin, J.-J. (2009). Virtual skeletons: using a structured light scanner to create a 3D faunal comparative collection. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 3018–2033.Google Scholar
  216. Oates, D. (1989). Differentiation of mule deer and white-tailed deer. In Nebraska Wildlife Bulletin 89-1. NE: Lincoln.Google Scholar
  217. Oates, D., & Walker, D. N. (1992). Mule deer vs white-tailed deer. In W. J. Adrian (Ed.), Wildlife forensic field manual (pp. 152–154). Denver: Association of Midwest Fish and Game Law Enforcement Officers.Google Scholar
  218. O’Connor, T. (1996). A critical overview of archaeological animal bone studies. World Archaeology, 28, 5–19.Google Scholar
  219. O’Connor, T. (2000). The archaeology of animal bones. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
  220. Olsen, J. W. (1990). Vertebrate faunal remains from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. Anthropological Papers No. 83. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  221. Olsen, S. J. (1959a). The archaeologist’s problem of getting nonartifactual materials interpreted. Curator, 2, 335–338.Google Scholar
  222. Olsen, S. J. (1959b). Similarity in the skull of the Bison and Brahman. American Antiquity, 24, 321–322.Google Scholar
  223. Olsen, S. J.. 1960. Post-cranial skeletal characters of Bison and Bos. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 35(4). Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  224. Olsen, S. J. (1961a). A basic annotated bibliography to facilitate identification of vertebrate remains from archaeological sites. Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological Society, 30, 217–222.Google Scholar
  225. Olsen, S. J. (1961b). The relative value of fragmentary mammalian remains. American Antiquity, 26, 538–540.Google Scholar
  226. Olsen, S. J. (1964). Mammal remains from archaeological sites, part I: southeastern and southwestern United States. In Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 56(1). Massachusetts: Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  227. Olsen, S. J. (1968). Fish, amphibian and reptile remains from archaeological sites, part I: southeastern and southwestern United States. In Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 56(2). Massachusetts: Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  228. Olsen, S. J. (1971). Zooarchaeology: animal bones in archaeology and their interpretation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Module in Anthropology.Google Scholar
  229. Olsen, S. J. (1972). Osteology for the archaeologist: the American mastodon and the woolly mammoth; North American birds: skulls and mandibles. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 56(3 & 4). Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  230. Olsen, S. J. (1979). Osteology for the archaeologist: North American birds: postcranial skeletons. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 56(5). Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  231. Olsen, S. J. (1982). An osteology of some Maya mammals. In Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (p. 73). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  232. Olsen, S. J. (2000). Faunal analysis: (part 1) changes in the study of animal remains from archaeological sites: a fifty year perspective; (part 2) review of Zooarchaeology (1999) by Elizabeth Reitz and Elizabeth Wing. Review of Archaeology, 21(4), 45–47.Google Scholar
  233. Orton, D. C. (2014). Biometry in zooarchaeology. In C. Smith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global archaeology (pp. 902–910). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  234. Pardi, M. J., & Graham, R. W. (2018). Time averaging and Late Quaternary ecological replacement in Don’s Gooseberry Pit, South Dakota, USA. Quaternary Research, 89, 307–317.Google Scholar
  235. Parmalee, P. W. (1957). Zoology. In The identification of non-artifactual archaeological materials, edited by WalterW. Taylor, pp. 45–46. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Publication 565.Google Scholar
  236. Parmalee, P. W. (1965). The food economy of archaic and woodland peoples at the Tick Creek cave site, Missouri. Missouri Archaeologist, 27, 1–34.Google Scholar
  237. Parmalee, P. W. (1977). Inferred Arikara subsistence patterns based on a selected faunal assemblage from the Mobridge site, South Dakota. The Kiva, 44, 191–218.Google Scholar
  238. Parmalee, P. W. (1985). Identification and interpretation of archaeologically derived animal remains. In R. J. Gilbert & J. H. Mielke (Eds.), The analysis of prehistoric diets (pp. 61–95). Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  239. Peres, T. M. (2010). Methodological issues in zooarchaeology. In A. VanDerwarker & T. M. Peres (Eds.), Integrating zooarchaeology and paleoethnobotany: a consideration of issues, methods, and cases (pp. 15–36). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  240. Pillaert, E. E. (1969). Faunal remains from the Millville site (47GT53), Grant County, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Archaeologist, 50, 92–108.Google Scholar
  241. Plavcan, J. M., & Cope, D. A. (2001). Metric variation and species recognition in the fossil record. Evolutionary Anthropology, 10, 204–222.Google Scholar
  242. Plug, I. (2017). Middle and later Stone Age hunters and their prey in southern Africa. In U. Albarella, M. Rizzetto, H. Russ, K. Vickers, & S. Viner-Daniels (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of zooarchaeology (pp. 385–395). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  243. Polly, P. D., & Head, J. J. (2004). Maximum-likelihood identification of fossils: taxonomic identification of quaternary marmots (Rodentia, Mammalia) and identification of vertebral position in the pipesnake Cylindrophis (Serpentes, Reptilia). In A. M. T. Elewa (Ed.), Morphometrics: applications in biology and paleontology (pp. 197–221). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  244. Polly, P. D., Killick, L., & Ruddy, M. (2011). Using left–right asymmetry to estimate non-genetic variation in vole teeth (Arvicolinae, Muridae, Rodentia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 14(3), 41A.Google Scholar
  245. Purdue, J. R. (1980). Clinal variation of some mammals during the Holocene of Missouri. Quaternary Research, 13, 242–258.Google Scholar
  246. Purdue, J. R. (1989). Changes during the Holocene in the size of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Central Illinois. Quaternary Research, 32, 307–316.Google Scholar
  247. Rackham, J. (1994). Animal bones. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  248. Raup, D. M., & Stanley, S. M. (1971). Principles of paleontology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  249. Rea, A. M. (1986). Verification and reverification: problems in archaeofaunal studies. Journal of Ethnobiology, 6, 9–18.Google Scholar
  250. Read, C. E. (1971). Animal bones and human behavior: approaches to faunal analysis in archaeology. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  251. Rees, J. W. (1971). Discriminatory analysis of divergence in mandibular morphology of Odocoileus. Journal of Mammalogy, 52, 724–731.Google Scholar
  252. Reitz, E. J. (1993). Zooarchaeology. In The development of southeastern archaeology (pp. 109–131). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  253. Reitz, E. J., & Wing, E. S. (1999). Zooarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  254. Reitz, E. J., & Wing, E. S. (2008). Zooarchaeology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  255. Reyment, R. A. (1985). Multivariate morphometrics and analysis of shape. Mathematical Geology, 17, 591–609.Google Scholar
  256. Reyment, R. A. (2010). Morphometrics: an historical essay. In A. M. T. Elewa (Ed.), Morphometrics for nonmorphometricians (pp. 9–24). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  257. Rhodes, R. Sanders, II. (1984). Paleoecology and regional paleoclimatic implications of the Farmdalian Craigmile and Woodfordian Waubonsie mammalian local faunas, southwestern Iowa. Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations no. 40. Springfield.Google Scholar
  258. Robison, N. D. (1987). Zooarchaeology: its history and development. In The zooarchaeology of eastern North America: history, method and theory, and bibliography, edited by Arthur E. Bogan and Neil D. Robison, pp. 1–26. Miscellaneous Paper No. 12. Tennessee Anthropological Association, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  259. Rockman, M. H. (1995). Investigation of faunal remains and social perspectives on natural resource use in an 1867 Wyoming gold mining town. Master of Arts thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  260. Rohlf, F. J. (1990). Morphometrics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 299–316.Google Scholar
  261. Rohlf, F. J., & Marcus, L. F. (1993). A revolution in morphometrics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 129–132.Google Scholar
  262. Rosvold, J., Herfindal, I., Andersen, R., & Hufthammer, A. K. (2014). Long-term morphological changes in the skeleton of red deer (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at its northern periphery. Journal of Mammalogy, 95, 626–637.Google Scholar
  263. Rudwick, M. J. S. (1997). Georges Cuvier, fossil bones, and geological catastrophes: new translations and interpretations of the primary texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  264. Rumph, Paul F. 1975. An osteology of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Unpublished Master of Science thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.Google Scholar
  265. Ryder, M. L. (1968). Animal bones in archaeology: a book of notes and drawings for beginners. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  266. Salemme, M., Miotti, L., & Tonni, E. (1991). The determination of mammal bones in zooarchaeological research. In IInd Deya international conference of prehistory: recent developments in western Mediterranean prehistory: archaeological techniques, technology and theory, vol. 1: Archaeological techniques and technology, edited by W. H. Waldren, J. A. Ensenyat and R. C. Kennard, pp. 209–222. BAR International Series 573. Oxford.Google Scholar
  267. Salvagno, L., & Albarella, U. (2017). A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones. PLoS One, 12(6), e0178543.Google Scholar
  268. Sandefur, E. (1977). Archaeology and the mule deer: a guide to carpal identification. Occasional Paper no. 10. Archaeological Survey Association, La Verne, CA.Google Scholar
  269. Savage, R. J. G., & Long, M. R. (1986). Mammal evolution: an illustrated guide. New York: Facts on File Publications.Google Scholar
  270. Schmid, E. (1972). Atlas of animal bones. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  271. Schollmeyer, K. G. (2009). Resource stress and settlement pattern change in the eastern Mimbres area, Southwest New Mexico. Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  272. Schubert, B. W. (2003). A Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene mammalian fauna from Little Beaver Cave, Central Ozarks, Missouri. In B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, & R. W. Graham (Eds.), Ice age cave faunas of North America (pp. 149–200). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  273. Schultz, C. B., & Howard, E. B. (1935). The fauna of Burnet cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 87, 273–298.Google Scholar
  274. Semken, H. A., Jr. (1966). Stratigraphy and paleontology of the McPherson Equus beds (Sandahl local fauna), McPherson County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology of the University of Michigan, 20, 121–178.Google Scholar
  275. Semken, H. A., Jr., & Wallace, S. C. (2002). Key to arvicoline (“microtine” rodents) and arvicoline-like lower first molars recovered from late Wisconsinan and Holocene archaeological sites in eastern North America. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 23–31.Google Scholar
  276. Sepkoski, D. (2016). The “species concept” and the beginnings of paleobiology. In W. D. Allmon & M. M. Yacobucci (Eds.), Species and speciation in the fossil record (pp. 9–27). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  277. Shelleman, M. (2015). Using geometric morphometrics to differentiate lower first molars of Microtus species: with a review of the Clark’s cave bone deposit, VA. Master of Science thesis, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City.Google Scholar
  278. Simpson, G. G. (1942). The beginnings of vertebrate paleontology in North America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 81, 130–188.Google Scholar
  279. Simpson, G. G. (1945). The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin vol. 45. New York.Google Scholar
  280. Simpson, T. (1984). Population dynamics of mule deer. In The dead Indian creek site: an archaic occupation in the Absaroka Mountains of Northeastern Wyoming, edited by George C. Frison and Danny N. Walker, pp. 83–96. The Wyoming Archaeologist 27(1–2).Google Scholar
  281. Slaughter, Bob H., Wilson W. Crook, Jr, R. K. Harris, D. C. Allen, & Seifert, M. (1962). The Hill-Shuler local faunas of the Upper Trinity River, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas. Report of Investigations no. 48. Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  282. Smart, T. S. (2009). Carpals and tarsals of mule deer, black bear and human: an osteology guide for the archaeologist. Master of Arts thesis, Western Washington University, Bellingham.Google Scholar
  283. Smartt, R. A. (1972). Late Pleistocene and Recent Microtus from southcentral and southwestern New Mexico. Master of Science thesis, University of Texas, El Paso.Google Scholar
  284. Smartt, R. A. (1977). The ecology of Late Pleistocene and Recent Microtus from south-central and southwestern New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist, 22, 1–19.Google Scholar
  285. Smith, F. A., Lyons, S. K., Morgan Ernest, S. K., Jones, K. E., Kauffman, D. M., Dayan, T., Marquet, P. A., Brown, J. H., & Haskell, J. P. (2003). Body mass of Late Quaternary mammals. Ecology, 84, 3403.Google Scholar
  286. Smith, G. S. (1979). Mammalian zooarchaeology, Alaska: a manual for identifying and analyzing mammal bones from archaeological sites in Alaska. Occasional Paper No. 18. Anthropology and Historic Preservation Unit, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  287. Smith, W. P. (1991). Odocoileus virginianus. Mammalian Species, 388, 1–13.Google Scholar
  288. Stahl, P. W. (1996). The recovery and interpretation of microvertebrate bone assemblages from archaeological contexts. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 3, 31–75.Google Scholar
  289. Stahl, P. W. (2008). Vertebrate analysis. In D. M. Pearsall (Ed.), Encyclopedia of archaeology (pp. 2173–2180). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  290. Stewart, J. D. (1978). Mammals of the trapshoot local fauna, Late Pleistocene of Rooks County, Kansas. Proceedings of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies, 1978, 45–46.Google Scholar
  291. Stewart, J. D. (1987). Latitudinal effects in Wisconsinan mammalian faunas of the plains. Kansas Geological Survey, Guidebook Series, 5, 153–158.Google Scholar
  292. Stewart, J. R. (2002). The evidence for the timing of speciation of modern continental birds and the taxonomic ambiguity of the Quaternary fossil record. In Z. Zhou & F. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5 thsymposium of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution (pp. 259–280). Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
  293. Stewart, J. R. 2005. The use of modern geographical ranges in the identification of archaeological bird remains. In Feathers, grit and symbolisms: birds and archaeology in the Old and New Worlds, edited by Gisela Grupe and Joris Peters, pp. 43–54. Proceedings of the ICAZ Bird Remains Working Group. Documeta Archaeobiologiae 3.Google Scholar
  294. Stewart, J. R., & Carrasquilla, F. H. (1997). The identification of extant European bird remains: a review of the literature. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 7, 364–371.Google Scholar
  295. Szuter, C. R. (1989). Hunting by prehistoric horticulturalists in the American southwest. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  296. Szuter, C. R. (1991). Hunting by prehistoric horticulturalists in the American southwest. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  297. Szuter, C. R., & Bayham, F. E. (1989). Sedentism and prehistoric animal procurement among desert horticulturalists of the North American southwest. In S. Kent (Ed.), Farmers as hunters: the implications of sedentism (pp. 80–95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  298. Tarcan, C., & Driver, J. (2010). The adoption and use of domestic animals at Zuni. In D. V. Campana, P. Crabtree, S. D. de France, J. Lev-Tov, & A. Choyke (Eds.), Anthropological approaches to zooarchaeology: complexity, colonialism, and animal transformations (pp. 159–167). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  299. Tattersall, I. (1986). Species recognition in human paleontology. Journal of Human Evolution, 15, 165–175.Google Scholar
  300. Taylor, W. W. (editor) (1957). The identification of non-artifactual archaeological materials. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Publication 565.Google Scholar
  301. Thomas, D. H. (1968). A quantitative method for the analysis of faunal remains from archaeological sites. Master of Arts thesis, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  302. Tiffney, B. H. (2008). Phylogeography, fossils, and northern hemisphere biogeography: the role of physiological uniformitarianism. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 95, 135–143.Google Scholar
  303. Turvey, S. T., Weksler, M., Morris, E. L., & Nokkert, M. (2010). Taxonomy, phylogeny, and diversity of the extinct lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 160, 748–772.Google Scholar
  304. Turvey, S. T., Brace, S., & Weksler, M. (2012). A new species of recently extinct rice rat (Megalomys) from Barbados. Mammalian Biology, 77, 404–413.Google Scholar
  305. Twiss, K. C., Wolfhagen, J., Madgwick, R., Foster, H., Demirergi, G. A., Russell, N., Everhart, J. L., Pearson, J., & Mulville, J. (2017). Horses, hemiones, hydruntines? Assessing the reliability of dental criteria for assigning species to southwest Asian equid remains. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 27, 298–304.Google Scholar
  306. Uerpmann, H.-P. (1973). Animal bone finds and economic archaeology: a critical study of ‘osteo-archaeological’ method. World Archaeology, 4, 307–322.Google Scholar
  307. van der Meulen, A. J. (1978). Microtus and Pitymys (Arvicolidae) from Cumberland Cave, Maryland, with a comparison of some New and Old World species. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 47, 101–145.Google Scholar
  308. Van Devender, T. R., Bradley, G. L., & Harris, A. H. (1987). Late Quaternary mammals from the Hueco Mountains, El Paso and Hudspeth counties, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist, 32, 179–195.Google Scholar
  309. Vargo, J., & Vargo, D. (1985). The feasibility of and requirements for establishing a comparative faunal collection. North American Archaeologist, 6, 283–287.Google Scholar
  310. Verts, B. J., & Carraway, L. N. (1998). Land mammals of Oregon. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  311. von den Driesch, A. (1976). A guide to the measurement of animal bones from archaeological sites. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Bulletin no. 1. Harvard University, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  312. Voorhies, M. R. (1984). “Citellus kimballensis” Kent and “Propliophenacomys uptegrovensis” Martin, supposed Miocene rodents, are recent intrusives. Journal of Paleontology, 58, 254–258.Google Scholar
  313. Vrba, E. S. (1980a). Evolution, species and fossils: how does life evolve? South African Journal of Science, 76, 61–84.Google Scholar
  314. Vrba, E. S. (1980b). The significance of bovid remains as indicators of environment and predation patterns. In A. K. Behrensmeyer & A. Hill (Eds.), Fossils in the making: vertebrate taphonomy and paleoecology (pp. 247–271). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  315. Walker, D. (1978). Envoi. In D. Walker & J. C. Guppy (Eds.), Biology and Quaternary environments (pp. 259–264). Canberra: Australian Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  316. Walker, D. N. (1992). Advanced comparative osteological character useful in wildlife forensics. In W. J. Adrian (Ed.), Wildlife forensic field manual (pp. 155–177). Denver: Association of Midwest Fish and Game Law Enforcement Officers.Google Scholar
  317. Wallace, S. C. (2001). Confirmation of Microtus montanus (mountain vole) from the late-Wisconsinan Jones local fauna, Meade County, Kansas. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 18, 117–119.Google Scholar
  318. Wallace, S. C. (2006). Differentiating Microtus xanthognathus and Microtus pennsylvanicus lower first molars using discriminant analysis of landmark data. Journal of Mammalogy, 87, 1261–1269.Google Scholar
  319. Waters, J. H. (1965). Animal remains from some New England woodland sites. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut, 33, 5–11.Google Scholar
  320. Welker, F., Soressi, M., Rendu, W., Hublin, J.-J., & Collins, M. (2015). Using ZooMS to identify fragmentary bone from the late Middle/early Upper Palaeolithic sequence of Les Cottés, France. Journal of Archaeological Science, 54, 279–286.Google Scholar
  321. Wellman, H. P., Rick, T. C., Rodrigues, A. T., & Yang, D. Y. (2017). Evaluating ancient whale exploitation on the northern Oregon coast through ancient DNA and zooarchaeological analysis. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 12, 255–275.Google Scholar
  322. White, T., Suwa, G., Richards, G., Watters, J. P., & Barnes, L. G. (1983). “Hominid clavicle” from Sahabi is actually a fragment of cetacean rib. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 61, 239–244.Google Scholar
  323. White, T. E. (1953). Studying osteological material. Plains Archaeological Conference Newsletter, 6(1), 58–66.Google Scholar
  324. White, T. E. (1956). The study of osteological materials in the plains. American Antiquity, 21, 401–404.Google Scholar
  325. Whittington, H. B. (1964). Taxonomic basis of paleoecology. In J. Imbrie & N. Newell (Eds.), Approaches to paleoecology (pp. 19–27). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  326. Willey, G. R., & Sabloff, J. A. (1993). A history of American archaeology (third ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  327. Williams, D. R. (2009). Small mammal faunal stasis in natural trap cave (Pleistocene–Holocene), Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming. Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  328. Wilson, M. C., & Hills, L. V. (1984). Holocene white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the foothills northwest of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 21, 365–371.Google Scholar
  329. Wintemberg, W. J. (1919). Archaeology as an aid to zoology. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 33, 63–72.Google Scholar
  330. Wolfhagen, J., & Price, M. D. (2017). A probabilistic model for distinguishing between sheep and goat postcranial remains. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 12, 625–631.Google Scholar
  331. Wolverton, S. (2013). Data quality in zooarchaeological faunal identification. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20, 381–396.Google Scholar
  332. Wolverton, S., Huston, M. A., Kennedy, J. H., Cagle, K., & Cornelius, J. D. (2009). Conformation to Bergmann’s rule in white-tailed deer can be explained by food availability. American Midland Naturalist, 162, 403–417.Google Scholar
  333. Wolverton, S., Kennedy, J. H., & Cornelius, J. D. (2007). A paleozoological perspective on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianianus texana) population density and body size in central Texas. Environmental Management, 39, 545–552.Google Scholar
  334. Wolverton, S., & Nagaoka, L. (2017). Zooarchaeology: investigating past interactions between humans and other animals. In R. R. N. Alves & U. P. Albuquerque (Eds.), Ethnozoology: animals in our lives (pp. 25–43). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  335. Wolverton, S., Nagaoka, L., Dong, P., & Kennedy, J. H. (2012). Behavioral depression in white-tailed deer. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 19, 462–489.Google Scholar
  336. Woodman, N., Schwert, D. P., Frest, T. J., and Ashworth, A. C. (1996). Paleoecology of subarctic faunal assemblages from the Woodfordian age (Pleistocene: Wisconsinan) Elkader site, northeastern Iowa. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum 178:1–33. University of Kansas, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  337. Wylie, A. (1985). The reaction against analogy. In M. B. Schiffer (Ed.), Advances in archaeological method and theory vol. 8 (pp. 63–111). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  338. Wylie, A. (1988). Simple analogy and the role of relevance assumptions: implications for archaeological practice. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 2, 134–150.Google Scholar
  339. Yang, D. Y., Woiderski, J. R., & Driver, J. C. (2005). DNA analysis of archaeological rabbit remains from the American southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 567–578.Google Scholar
  340. Zakrzewski, R. J. (1985). The fossil record. In Biology of New World Microtus, edited by Robert H. Tamarin, pp. 1–51. Special Publication no. 8. American Society of Mammalogists.Google Scholar
  341. Zeder, M. A. (1991). Feeding cities: specialized animal economy in the ancient Near East. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  342. Zeder, M. A., & Lapham, H. A. (2010). Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify postcranial bones in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37, 2887–2905.Google Scholar
  343. Zeder, M. A., & Pilaar, S. E. (2010). Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify mandibles and mandibular teeth in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37, 225–242.Google Scholar
  344. Ziegler, A. C. (1963). Unmodified mammal and bird remains from Deer Creek Cave, Elko County, Nevada. In Deer Creek Cave, Elko County, Nevada, by Mary Elizabeth Shutler and Richard Shutler, Jr., pp. 15–22. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers 11. Carson City.Google Scholar
  345. Ziegler, A. C. (1965). The role of faunal remains in archaeological investigations. Sacramento Anthropological Society and Central California Archaeological Foundation, 3, 47–75.Google Scholar
  346. Ziegler, A. C. (1973). Inference from prehistoric faunal remains. Addison Wesley Module in Anthropology No. 43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations