From Stone to Metal: the Dynamics of Technological Change in the Decline of Chipped Stone Tool Production. A Case Study from the Southern Levant (5th–1st Millennia BCE)

  • Francesca ManclossiEmail author
  • Steven A. Rosen
  • Eric Boëda


The shift from stone to metal has been considered one of the main technological transformations in the history of humankind. In order to observe the dynamics underlying the disappearance of chipped stone tools and their replacement with metal implements, we adopt an approach which combines two different levels of analysis. At the first, by focusing on the Southern Levant as a case study, we consider the developmental forces internal to the technology itself and the conditions favorable to the invention, spread, continuation, or disappearance of technical traits. At the second, by considering specific historical scenarios, we test the existence of general principles which guide technological changes. Flint knapping and metallurgy, and notably their relationship, are particularly appropriate to observe regularities which operate at different scales, the first one within the developmental lines of objects, techniques and technologies, and the second one within the conditions of actualization of technological facts. On the one hand, following the “rules” of technical tendencies, a techno-logic perspective allows observation of how metal cutting objects, overcoming the “limits” of knapping technology, represent the logical development of flint tools. On the other hand, the analysis of the socioeconomic contexts in which chipped stone tools were produced permits identification of regularities which conditioned changes in lithic production systems, their decline, and the final replacement with metal tools.


Technological change Technological development Evolutionary forces Lithics Flint Metal Levant 



We would like to thank the former journal editors Cathy Cameron and Jim Skibo, Valentine Roux, Michael O’Brien, and the other anonymous referees whose relevant comments considerably improved an earlier draft of the paper.

Funding Information

This work was funded by the Centre de Recherche Français à Jérusalem, the Ben- Gurion University of the Negev, and the Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.


  1. Akrich, M. (1989). La construction d’un système socio-technique. Esquisse pour une anthropologie des techniques. Anthropologie des techniques, 13(2), 31–54.Google Scholar
  2. Allard, P., & Burnez-Lanotte, L. (Eds.). (2012). Productions domestiques versus spécialisées au Néolithique et au Chalcolithique, finalités techniques et fonctions sociales: question d’échelle. Paris: Bulletin de La Société Préhistorique Française.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, P. C., Chabot, J., & van Gijn, A. L. (2004). The functional riddle of “glossy” Canaanean blades and the near eastern threshing sledge. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, 17(1), 87–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astruc, L. (Ed.). (2005). Au-delà de la notion de technologie expédiente: outillages lithiques et osseux au Néolithique. Nanterre: Cahiers des thèmes transversaux d’ArScAn.Google Scholar
  5. Astruc, L., Bon, F., Léa, V., Milcent, P. Y., & Philbert, S. (Eds.). (2006). Normes techniques et pratiques sociales: de la simplicité des outillages pré- et protohistoriques. Antibes: APDCA.Google Scholar
  6. Bailly, M. (2009). Stone tools and copper tools in Late Neolithic Western Europe: what relationship, what substitution? From common sense to research agenda. In P. Jockey (Ed.), Interdisciplinary studies on Mediterranean ancient marble and stone (pp. 865–877). Paris: Miasonneuve & Larose.Google Scholar
  7. Bamforth, D. B. (1986). Technological efficiency and tool curation. American Antiquity, 51, 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bar-Adon, P. (1980). The cave of the treasure. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.Google Scholar
  9. Barkai, R. (1999). Resharpening and recycling of flint bifacial tools from the Southern Levant Neolithic and Chalcolithic. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 65, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barkai, R. (2005). Flint and stone axes as cultural markers: socio-economic changes as reflected in Holocene flint tool industries of southern Levant. Berlin: Ex Oriente.Google Scholar
  11. Barkai, R. (2006). The earliest tree fellers: on axes, people and ideology during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods in Israel. Jerusalem and the Land of Israel, 3, 5–21 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  12. Barton, C. M., & Clark, G. A. (1997). Rediscovering Darwin: evolutionary theory in archaeological explanations. Arlington: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  13. Basalla, G. (1998). The evolution of technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bauvais, S. (2008). Prolégomènes à une histoire de la métallurgie du fer au Levant Sud. Bulletin du Centre de Recherche français à Jérusalem 19.; Accessed 12 March 2017.
  15. Benoit, P., Milik, J. T., & de Vaux, R. (1961). La grotte de Mabbaât. Discoveries in the Judean Desert II. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bensaude-Vincent, B. (1998). Eloge du mixte. Matériaux nouveaux et philosophie ancienne. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  17. Bentley, R. A., & Shennan, S. J. (2003). Cultural transmission and stochastic network growth. American Antiquity, 68, 459–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bentley, R. A., Hahn, M. W., & Shennan, S. J. (2004). Random drift and culture change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271, 1443–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bijker, W. E., Hughies, T. C., & Pinch, T. (1989). The social construction of technological systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  20. Binder, D., & Perlès, C. (1990). Stratégies de gestion des outillages lithiques au Néolithique. Paléo, 2, 257–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Binford, R. L. (1979). Organization and formation process: looking at curated technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 35(3), 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Birch, T., Rehren, T., & Pernicka, E. (2013). The metallic finds from Catalhöyük: a review and preliminary new work. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Substantive technologies at Catalhöyük: reports from 2000–2008 seasons (pp. 307–318). London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara.Google Scholar
  23. Bleed, P. (1986). The optimal design of hunting weapons: maintainability or reliability. American Antiquity, 5, 737–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boëda, E. (1988). De la surface au volume: analyse des conceptions des débitages Levallois et laminaire. In C. Farizy (Ed.), Paléolithique moyen récent et Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Europe (pp. 966–968). Nemours: APRAIF.Google Scholar
  25. Boëda, E. (1997). Technogenèse des systèmes de production lithique au Paléolithique inférieur et moyen en Europe occidentale et au Proche -Orient. Habilitation dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris X- Nanterre.Google Scholar
  26. Boëda, E. (2001). Détermination des unités techno-fonctionnelles de pièces bifaciales provenant de la couche acheuléenne C’3 base du site de Barbas. In D. Cliquet (Ed.), Les industries à outils bifaciaux du Paléolithique moyen d’Europe occidentale (pp. 51–75). Liège: ERAUL.Google Scholar
  27. Boëda, E. (2005). Paléo-technologie ou anthropologie des techniques? Arob@se, 1, 46–64.Google Scholar
  28. Boëda, E. (2013). Techno-logique & technologie: une paléo-histoire des objets lithiques tranchants. @rchéo-é Scholar
  29. Boëda, E., Hou, Y. M., Forestier, H., Sarel, J., & Wang, H. M. (2013). Levallois and non-Levallois blade production at Shuidonggou in Ningxia, North China. Quaternary International, 295, 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bonilauri, S. (2010). Les outils du Paléolithique moyen: une mémoire technique oubliée? Approche techno-fonctionnelle appliquée à un assemblage lithique de conception Levallois provenant du site d’Umm el Tlel (Syrie centrale). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  31. Braun, E. & Roux, V (Eds.) (2013). The transition Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age in the Southern Levant. Paléorient 39(1).Google Scholar
  32. Bresnahan, T. (1987). Competition and collusion in the American automobile oligopoly: the 1955 price war. Journal of Industrial Economics, 35, 437–455.Google Scholar
  33. Brumfiel, E. M., & Earle, K. (Eds.). (1987). Specialization, exchange and complex societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Brun, P., Averbouh, A., Karlin, C., Méry, S., & de Miroschedji, P. (2006). Les liens entre la complexité des sociétés traditionnelles et le niveau de spécialisation artisanale: bilan et perspective. In A. Averbouh, P. Brun, C. Karlin, S. Méry, & P. de Miroschedji (Eds.), Spécialisation des taches et société (pp. 325–347). Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme.Google Scholar
  35. Burke, S. J. (2014). The Southern Levant (Transjordan) during the Middle Bronze Age. In M. L. Steiner & A. E. Killebrew (Eds.), The archaeology of the Levant (pp. 526–541). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Callon, M. (1989). Réseaux technico-économiques et irréversibilité. In R. Boyer, B. Chavanne, & O. Godard (Eds.), Figures d’irréversibilité en économie (pp. 195–230). Paris: Editions EHESS.Google Scholar
  37. Caneva, I. (1993). From Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age III at Arslantepe: a lithic perspective. In M. Frangipane, H. Hauptmann, M. Liverani, P. Matthiae, & M. Mellink (Eds.), Between rivers and over the mountains: Archaeologica anatolica et mesopotamica Alba Palmieri dedicata (pp. 319–339). Roma: Università La Sapienza di Roma.Google Scholar
  38. Chambon, A. (1984). Tell el-Far’ah I: l’Age du Fer. Paris: ERC.Google Scholar
  39. Château, J.-Y. (2010). La technique: genèse et concrétisation des objets techniques dans Du mode d’existence des objets techniques de Gilbert Simondon. Philopsis. Accessed 4 July 2017.
  40. Chevrier, B. (2012). Les assemblages à pièces bifaciales au Pléistocène inférieur et moyen ancien en Afrique de l’Est et au Proche Orient. Nouvelle approche du phénomène bifacial appliquée aux problématiques de migration, de diffusion et d’évolution locale. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  41. Childe, V. G. (1951). Man makes himself: man’s progress through the ages. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  42. Clark, J., & Perry, W. J. (1990). Craft specialization and cultural complexity. Research in Economic Anthropology, 12, 289–346.Google Scholar
  43. Cobb, C. R. (Ed.). (2003). Stone tool traditions in the Contact Era. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  44. Collin, M., & Latour, B. (1981). Unscrewing the big Leviathan; or how actors macrostructure reality, and how sociologists help them to do so. In K. D. Knorr & A. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory and methodology: toward an integration of micro- and macro- sociologies (pp. 277–303). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  45. Coqueugniot, E. (1991). L’outillage de pierre taillée au Bronze Récent. Ras Shamra 1978-1988. In M. Yon (Ed.), Ras Shamra-Ougarit VI: arts et industries de la pierre (pp. 127–204). Paris: ERC.Google Scholar
  46. Coqueugniot, E. (2006). Mari, Larsa, Ugarit et les outillages en silex de l’Age du Bronze. Réflexions sur le rôle et le statut du travail du silex aux IIIe et IIe millénaire. In P. Butterlin (Ed.), Les espaces syro-mésopotamiens, dimensions de l’expérience humaine au Proche-Orient ancien, volume d’hommage offert à Jean-Claude Margueron (pp. 323–338) SUBARTU 17.Google Scholar
  47. Coqueugniot, E. (2010). Ras Shamra-Ougarit. Un atelier de travail du silex dans une maison du secteur « Grand Rue » (campagne 2005-2007). Syria, 87, 37–40.Google Scholar
  48. Costin, L. (1991). Craft specialization: issues in defining, documenting and explaining the organization of production. Archaeological Method and Theory, 3, 1–56.Google Scholar
  49. Costin, L. (2001). Craft production system. In G. M. Feinman, T. D. Price, & T. Douglas (Eds.), Archaeology at the millennium: a sourcebook (pp. 273–327). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Coutier, L. (1952). Notes sur les pierres à feu. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France, 49(7), 327–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cresswell, R. (1994). La nature cyclique des relations entre la technique et le social. Approche technologique de la chaîne opératoire. In B. Latour & P. Lemonnier (Eds.), De la préhistoire aux missiles balistiques: l’intelligence sociale des techniques (pp. 275–289). Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  52. Cresswell, R. (1996). Prométhée ou Pandore? Propos de technologie culturelle. Paris: Kimé.Google Scholar
  53. Cresswell, R. (2003). Geste technique, fait social total. Le technique est-il dans le social ou face à lui? Technique & Culture, 40.; Accessed 13 Jan 2017.
  54. Da Costa, A. (2017). Rupture technique et dynamiques d’occupation au cours de l’Holocène moyen au Brésil. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  55. Davidzon, A., & Gilead, I. (2009). The Chalcolithic workshop at Beit Eshel: preliminary refitting studies and possible socio-economic implications. In S. A. Rosen & V. Roux (Eds.), Techniques and people: anthropological perspectives on technology in the archaeology of the proto- historic and early historic periods in the Southern Levant (pp. 25–41). Paris: De Boccard.Google Scholar
  56. de Miroschedji, P. (1986). Céramique et mouvement de population: le cas de la Palestine au IIIe millénaire. In M. T. Barrelet & J. Gardin (Eds.), A propos des interprétations archéologiques de la poterie: questions ouvertes (pp. 10–46). Paris: ERC.Google Scholar
  57. de Miroschedji, P. (2014). The Southern Levant (Cisjordan) during the Early Bronze Age. In M. L. Steiner & A. E. Killebrew (Eds.), The archaeology of the Levant (pp. 357–379). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. De Weyer, L. (2016). Systèmes techniques et variabilité fonctionnelle des industries lithiques anciennes. Universaux et variabilité en Afrique de l’Est et en Europe. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  59. Deforge, Y. (1985). Technologie et génétique de l’objet industriel. Paris: Maloine.Google Scholar
  60. Dosi, G. (1982). Technological paradigms and technological trajectories. A suggested interpretation of the determinants and directions of technical change. Research Policy, 11, 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Douglas, N. (1996). The political economy of U.S. automobile protection. In A. O. Krueger (Ed.), The political economy of American trade policy (pp. 133–196). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. Durand, B. (2009). La crise pétrolière. Paris: EDP Science.Google Scholar
  63. Eckermann, E. (2001). World history of the automobile. New York: SEA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Edens, C. (1999). The chipped stone industry at Hacinebi: technological styles and social identity. Paléorient, 25(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Edmonds, M. (1995). Stone tools and society. Working stone in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  66. Eerkens, J. W., & Lipo, C. P. (2005). Cultural transmission, copying errors, and the generation of variation in material culture and the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 24, 316–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eitan, A. (1994). Rare sword of the Israelite period found at Vered Jericho. Israel Museum Journal, 12, 61–62.Google Scholar
  68. El Mor, Z., & Pernot, M. (2011). Middle Bronze Age metallurgy in the Levant: evidence from the weapons of Byblos. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 2613–2624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ellul, J. (1977). Le système technique. Paris: Calmann-Lévy.Google Scholar
  70. Eriksen, B. V. (Ed.). (2010). Lithic technology in metal using societies. Højbjerg: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Feldman, M. W., Aoki, K., & Kumm, J. (1996). Individual versus social learning: evolutionary analysis in a fluctuating environment. Anthropological Science, 104, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fischer, P. M. (Ed.). (2008). Tell Abu Al-Kharaz in the Jordan Valley: the Early Bronze Age. Wien: Austrian Academy of Science Press.Google Scholar
  73. Forbes, R. J. (1971). Studies in ancient technologies (Vol. VIII, 2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  74. Ford, H. S., Bradley, R., Hawkes, J., & Fisher, P. (1984). Flint-working in the metal age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 3, 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Frick, J. A., & Herkert, K. (2014). Lithic technology and logic of technicity. Meitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte, 23, 129–172.Google Scholar
  76. Futato, E. M. (1996). Early Bronze Age III Canaanean blade/scraper cores from Tell Halif, Israel. In J. D. Seger (Ed.), Retrieving the past. Essays on archaeological research and methodology in honor of Gus W. Van Breek (pp. 61–74). Cobb Institute of Archaeology: Starkville.Google Scholar
  77. Gallay, A. (1986). L’archéologie demain. Paris: Belfond.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gallay, A. (2011). Une ethnoarchéologie théorique. Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  79. Gelbert, A. (2003). Traditions céramiques et emprunts techniques dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Paris: Editions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme.Google Scholar
  80. Genz, H. (2000). The organization of Early Bronze Age metalworking in the Southern Levant. Paléorient, 26(1), 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Georgano, G. N. (1990). Cars: early and vintage, 1886–1930. London: Grange Universal.Google Scholar
  82. Gernez, G. (2007). L’armement en métal au Proche et Moyen Orient: des origines à 1750 Av. J.-C. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Paris: Université de Paris I Panthéon- Sorbonne.Google Scholar
  83. Gernez, G. (2008). La question des mécanismes évolutifs des productions métallurgiques: l’exemple des armes au Proche-Orient. In C. Oberweiller, B. Quilliec, & V. Verardi (Eds.), La métallurgie de transformation des alliages cuivreux: approches méthodologiques et applications archéologiques récentes (pp. 133–138). Nanterre: Cahiers des thèmes transversaux d’ArScAn.Google Scholar
  84. Gersht, D. (2006). The flint assemblage from area K. In I. Finkelstein, D. Ussishkin, & B. Halpern (Eds.), Megiddo IV: the 1998–2002 seasons (pp. 343–349). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Gilead, I. (1988). The Chalcolithic period in the Levant. Journal of World Prehistory, 2(4), 397–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gilead, I., Marder, O., Khalaily, H., Fabian, P., Abadi, Y., & Yisrael, Y. (2004). The Beit Eshel Chalcolithic flint workshop in Beer Sheva: a preliminary report. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 34, 245–263.Google Scholar
  87. Gilead, I., Davidzon, A., & Vardi, J. (2010). The Ghassulian sickle blade workshop of Beit Eshel, Beer Sheva, Israel. In B. V. Eriksen (Ed.), Lithic technology in metal using society (pp. 221–230). Højbjerg: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Gille, B. (Ed.). (1978). Histoire des techniques. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  89. Godelier, M. (2000). Aux sources de l’anthropologie économique. Socio-Anthropologie 7. Accessed 4 July 2018.
  90. Golden, J. (2009). New light on the development of Chalcolithic metal technology in the Southern Levant. Journal of World Prehistory, 22, 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Golden, J. (2010). Dawn of the metal age: technology and society during the Levantine Chalcolithic. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  92. Goren, Y. (2008). The location of specialized copper production by the lost wax technique in the Chalcolithic Southern Levant. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, 23, 374–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gošić, M. (2014). Metallurgy, magic and social identities in the Ghassulian culture of the Southern Levant (ca. 4500-4000 BC). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Beersheba: Ben Gurion University of the Negev.Google Scholar
  94. Gosselain, O. P. (2000). Materializing identities: an African perspective. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 7, 187–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gosselain, O. P. (2008). Mother Bella was not Bella. Inherited and transformed traditions in southwestern Niger. In M. Stark, B. Bower, & L. Horne (Eds.), Cultural transmission and material culture. Breaking down boundaries (pp. 150–177). Tucson: Arizona University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Gosselain, O. P. (2010). De l’art d’accommoder les pâtes: Espaces sociaux et échelles d’analyse au Niger. In C. Manen, F. Convertini, D. Binder, & I. Sénepart (Eds.), Premières sociétés paysannes de la Méditerranée orientale (pp. 249–263). Paris: Société Préhistorique Française.Google Scholar
  97. Greenfield, H. (2013). The fall of the house of flint’: a zooarchaeological perspective on the decline of chipped stone tools from butchering animals in the Bronze and Iron Ages of the Southern Levant. Lithic Technology, 38(3), 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Guchet, X. (2005). Les sens de l’évolution technique. Paris: Editions Léo Scheer.Google Scholar
  99. Guchet, X. (2008). Evolution technique et objectivité technique chez Loroi-Gourhan et Simondon. Appareil, 2. Accessed 13 Dec 2017.
  100. Gurova, M. (2013). Tribulum inserts in ethnographic and archaeological perspective: case studies from Bulgaria and Israel. Lithic Technology, 38(3), 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hartenberger, B., & Runnels, C. (2001). The organization of flaked stone production at Bronze Age Lerna. The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 70(3), 255–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hartenberger, B., Rosen, S. A., & Matney, T. (2000). The Early Bronze Age blade workshop at Titriş Höyük: lithic specialization in an urban context. Near Eastern Archaeology, 63(1), 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hauptman, A., & Pernicka, E. (Eds.). (1999). The beginnings of metallurgy. Bochum: Deutschen Bergbau-Museum.Google Scholar
  104. Hauptman, A., Khalil, L., & Schmitt-Strecker, S. (2009). Evidence of Late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age I copper production from Timna ores at Tall al-Magass, ‘Aqaba. In L. Khalil & K. Schmidt (Eds.), Prehistoric ‘Aqaba (pp. 295–304). Rahden: Mari Leidorf.Google Scholar
  105. Hayden, B., Franco, N., & Spafford, J. (1996). Evaluating lithic strategies and design criteria. In G. Oddel (Ed.), Theoretical insights into human prehistory (pp. 9–45). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  106. Hermon, S. (2008). Socio aspect of Chalcolithic (4500–3500 BCE) societies in Southern Levant: a lithic perspective. Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  107. Heskel, D. L. (1983). A model of the adoption of metallurgy in the ancient Middle East. Current Anthropology, 24, 362–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hestrin, R., & Tadmor, M. (1963). A hoard of tools and weapons from Kfar Monash. Israel Exploration Journal, 13, 265–288.Google Scholar
  109. Hirth, K. (Ed.). (2009). Housework: craft production and domestic economy in ancient Mesoamerica. Arlington: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  110. Högberg, A. (2009). Lithic in the Scandinavian Bronze Age. Sociotechnical change and persistence. Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  111. Holmes, D. L. (1992). Chipped-stone working craftsman, Hierakonopolis and the rise of civilization in Egypt. In R. F. Friedman & B. Adams (Eds.), The followers of Horus: studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1944–1990 (pp. 37–44). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  112. Hounshell, D. (1984). From the American system to the mass production, 1800–1932: the development of manufacturing technologies in the United States. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Humphrey, J. (2004). Iron Age flint utilization in central and southern Britain: the last ‘Stone Age?’ An integrated theoretical end empirical study. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Leicester: University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  114. Ilan, O., & Sebbane, M. (1989). Copper metallurgy, trade, and the urbanization of southern Canaan in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. In P. de Miroschedji (Ed.), L’ubanisation de la Palestine à l’Age du Bronze Ancien: bilan et perspectives des recherches actuelles (pp. 139–162). Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  115. Inizan, M.-L., Reduron, M., Roche, H., & Tixier, J. (1995). Technologie de la pierre taillée. Meudon: CREP.Google Scholar
  116. Jeske, R. L. (1992). Energetic efficiency and lithic technology: an Upper Mississippian example. American Antiquity, 57(3), 467–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kameda, T., & Nakanishi, D. (2002). Cost-benefit analysis of social/cultural learning in a nonstationary uncertain environment: an evolutionary simulation and an experiment with human subjects. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 242–260.Google Scholar
  118. Kardulias, P. N. (2003). Stone in the age of bronze: lithics from Bronze Age contexts in Greece and Iran. In P. N. Kardulias & R. W. Yerkes (Eds.), Written in stone: the multiple dimensions of lithic analysis (pp. 113–124). Lenham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  119. Karlin, C., Bodu, P., & Pelegrin, J. (1991). Processus techniques et chaînes opératoires. Comment les préhistoriens s’approprient un concept élaboré par les ethnologues. In H. Balfet (Ed.), Observer l’action technique. Des chaînes opératoires, pour quoi faire ? (pp. 101–117). Paris: Editions du CNRS.Google Scholar
  120. Kay, J. H. (1998). Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, and how we can take it back. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  121. Kent, B. C. (1983). More on gunflints. Historical Archaeology, 17(2), 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Khalil, L.A.H. (1980). The composition and technology of copper artifacts from Jericho and some related sites. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. London: University of London.Google Scholar
  123. Klimscha, F. (2011). Long-range contacts in the Late Chalcolithic of the Southern Levant. Excavations at Tell Hujayrat al-Ghuzlan and Tall al-Magrass near Aqaba, Jordan. In J. Mynárova (Ed.), Egypt and the Near East- the Crossroads (pp. 177–209). Prague: Charles University.Google Scholar
  124. Lafitte, J. (1972). Réflexions sur la science des machines. Paris: Vrin.Google Scholar
  125. Latour, B. (1992). Technology is society made durable. In J. Law (Ed.), Sociology of monster: essays on power, technology and domination (pp. 103–130). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  126. Le Roux, C. T. (1999). L’outillage de pierre polie en métadolérite du type A. Les ateliers de Plussulien (Côte d’Armor): Production et diffusion au Néolithique dans la France de l’ouest et au-delà. Rennes: Université de Rennes I.Google Scholar
  127. Lech, J., Piotrowska, D., & Werra, D. H. (2015). Between economy and symbol: flint in the Bronze Age in eastern central Europe. In P. Suchowska-Ducke, S. Scott Reiter, & H. Ehrhardt (Eds.), Forging identities: the mobility of culture in Bronze Age Europe (pp. 221–229). Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  128. Lechtman, H. (1996). Arsenic bronze: dirty copper or chosen alloy? A view from the Americans. Journal of Field Archaeology, 23, 477–514.Google Scholar
  129. Lemonnier, P. (1976). La description des chaînes opératoires: contribution à l’analyse des systèmes techniques. Techniques & Cultures, 1, 100–151.Google Scholar
  130. Lemonnier, P. (Ed.). (1993). Technological choices: transformations in material culture since the Neolithic. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  131. Lemonnier, P. (2010). L’étude des systèmes techniques: une urgence en technologie culturelle. Technique & Culture, 54-55, 46–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lepot, M. (1993). Approche techno-fonctionnelle de l’outillage lithique moustérien : essai de classification des parties actives en termes d’efficacité techniques. Application à la couche M2e sagittale du Grand Abri de la Ferrassie (fouille Henri Delporte). Unpublished Master dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris X- Nanterre.Google Scholar
  133. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1943). Evolution et technique. L’homme et la matière. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  134. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1964). Le geste et la parole. I, technique et langage. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  135. Levy, T. E. (1995). Cult, metallurgy and ranked societies: the Chalcolithic period (ca. 4500-3500 BCE). In T. E. Levy (Ed.), The archaeology of society in the Holy Land (pp. 226–245). London: Leicester University press.Google Scholar
  136. Levy, T. E., & Shalev, S. (1989). Prehistoric metalworking in the Southern Levant: archaeometallurgical and social perspectives. World Archaeology, 20(3), 352–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Levy, T. E., Russell, B., Adams, R. B., Hauptmann, A., Prage, M., Schmitt-Strecker, S., & Najjar, M. (2002). Early Bronze Age metallurgy: a newly discovered copper manufactory in southern Jordan. Antiquity, 76, 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Li, Y. (2011). Etude technologique de l’industrie lithique du site de Guanyindong dans la province de Guizhou, sud-ouest de la Chine. @rcéo-é Scholar
  139. Lipo, C. P., O’Brien, M. J., Collard, M., & Shennan, S. J. (Eds.). (2006). Mapping our ancestors: phylogenetic approaches in anthropology and prehistory. Brunswick: Aldine Transition.Google Scholar
  140. Littauer, M. A., & Crouwel, J. H. (1990). Ceremonial threshing in the ancient near east. Iraq, 52, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lourdeau, A. (2010). Le technocomplexe Itaparica. Définition techno-fonctionelle des industries à pièces façonnées unifacialement à une face plane dans le centre et le nord-est du Brésil pendant la transition Pléistocène-Holocène et l’Holocène ancien. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- la Défense.Google Scholar
  142. Lyman, R. L., & O’Brien, M. J. (1998). The goals of evolutionary archaeology: history and explanation. Current Anthropology, 39, 615–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lyman, R. L., & O’Brien, M. J. (2000). Measuring and explaining change in artifact variation with clade-diversity diagrams. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 19, 39–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mackenzie, D., & Wajcman, J. (1985). The social shaping of technology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Maddin, R., Muhly, J. D., & Stech, T. (2003). Metallurgical studies on copper artifacts from Bâb Edh-Dhrâ. In W. E. Rast & R. T. Schaub (Eds.), Bâb Edh-Dhrâ’: Excavations at the town site, 1977–1981 excavations (pp. 513–521). Winnona Lake: Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
  146. Manclossi, F. (2016). De la pierre aux métaux: dynamiques des changements techniques dans les industries lithiques au Levant Sud, IV ème - I er millénaire av. J.-C. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nantere: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense ; Beersehava: Ben Gurion University of the Negev.Google Scholar
  147. Manclossi, F., & Rosen, S. A. (2019a). The importance of being ad hoc: patterns and implications of expedient lithic production in the Bronze Age in Israel. In R. Horowitzn & G. S. McCall (Eds.), Global perspectives on lithic technology in complex societies. Utah: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  148. Manclossi, F., & Rosen, S. A. (2019b). Dynamics of change in flint sickles of the age of metals: new insights from a technological approach. Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies, 7(1).Google Scholar
  149. Manclossi, F., Rosen, S. A., & de Miroschedji, P. (2016). The Canaanean blades from Tel Yarmuth, Israel: a technological analysis. Paléorient, 42(1), 49–74.Google Scholar
  150. Manclossi, F., Rosen, S. A., & Lehmann, G. (2018). The decline and disappearance of chipped-stone tools: new insights from Qubur al-Walaydah, a Late Bronze-Iron Age site in Israel. Lithic Technology, 43(2), 93–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Manolakakis, L. (2002). The function of the big blades from Varna necropolis. Archaeologiâ, 43(3), 5–17.Google Scholar
  152. Marder, O., Braun, E., & Milevski, I. (1995). The flint assemblage of Horvat ‘Illit. Some technical and economic considerations.’. Atiqot, 27, 63–93.Google Scholar
  153. Marx, L. (1987). Does improved technology mean progress? Technology Review, 90, 32–41.Google Scholar
  154. McConaughy, M. (1979). Formal and functional analysis of chipped stone tools from Bâb Edh-Dhrâ. Ann Arbor: University Microfilm.Google Scholar
  155. McConaughy, M. (1980). Chipped stone tools from Bâb Edh-Dhrâ. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 240, 53–58.Google Scholar
  156. McConaughy, M. (2003). Chipped stone tools from Bâb Edh-Dhrâ. In W. E. Rast & R. T. Schaub (Eds.), Bâb edh-Dhrâ’: excavations at the town site, 1975–1982 (pp. 473–512). Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
  157. McLaren, A. (2008). Flintworking in the British Late Bronze and Iron Ages: a critical review and statement of research potential. Lithic Technology, 33(2), 141–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. McNutt, P. (1990). The forging of Israel: iron technology, symbolism, and tradition in ancient society. Sheffield: The Almond Press.Google Scholar
  159. Mesoudi, A., & O’Brien, M. J. (2008a). The cultural transmission of Great Basin projectile-point technology I: an experimental simulation. American Antiquity, 73, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Mesoudi, A., & O’Brien, M. J. (2008b). The cultural transmission of Great Basin projectile-point technology II: an agent-based computer simulation. American Antiquity, 73, 627–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Michailidou, A. (2001). Recording quantities of metal in Bronze Age societies in the Aegean and the near east. In A. Michailidou (Ed.), Manufacture and measuring: counting, measuring and recording craft items in early Aegean societies (pp. 85–119). Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  162. Milevski, I. (2009). The Copper Age and inequality in the Southern Levant. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 39, 1–28.Google Scholar
  163. Milevski, I. (2011). Early Bronze Age good exchange in the Southern Levant: a Marxist perspective. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  164. Milevski, I. (2013). The exchange of flint tools in the Southern Levant during the Early Bronze Age. Lithic Technology, 38(3), 202–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Milevski, I., Vardi, J., Gilead, I., Eirikh-Rose, A., Birkenfeld, M., Mienis, H. K., & Horwitz, L. K. (2013). Excavations at Horbat ‘Illit B: a Chalcolithic (Ghassulian) site in the Haeleah Vallay. Journal of Israel Prehistoric Society, 43, 73–147.Google Scholar
  166. Miron, E. (1992). Axes and adzes from Canaan. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur.Google Scholar
  167. Moorey, P. R. S. (1988). The Chalcolithic hoard from Nahal Mishmar, Israel, in context. World Archaeology, 20, 171–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Morgado Rodríguez, A., Pelegrin, J., Martínez Fernandez, G., & Alfonso Marrero, J. A. (2008). La production de grandes lames dans la péninsule ibérique (IVe-IIIe millénaire). In M.-L. Dias-Meirinho, V. Léa, K. Gernigon, P. Fouéré, F. Briois, & M. Bailly (Eds.), Les industries lithiques taillées des IV e et III e millénaires en Europe occidentale (pp. 309–330). Oxford: Bar International Series.Google Scholar
  169. Mozel, I. (1983). A reconstructed sickle from Lachish. Tel Aviv, 10, 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Muhly, J. D. (1982a). How iron technology changed the ancient world and gave the Philistines a military edge. Biblical Archaeological Review, 8(6), 42–54.Google Scholar
  171. Muhly, J. D. (1982b). The nature of trade in the LBA eastern Mediterranean: the organization of metals trade and the role of Cyprus. In J. D. Muhly, R. Maddin, & V. Karageorghis (Eds.), Early metallurgy in Cyprus, 4000–500 BC (pp. 251–266). Nicosia: Pierides Foundation.Google Scholar
  172. Muhly, J. D. (1985). Sources of tin and the beginning of the Bronze Age. American Journal of Archaeology, 89, 275–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Nadmar, D., Segal, I., Goren, Y., & Shalev, S. (2004). Chalcolithic copper artifacts. In N. Scheftelowitz & R. Oren (Eds.), Giv’at ha-Oranim. A Chalcolithic site (pp. 70–83). Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology.Google Scholar
  174. O’Brien, M. J., & Bentley, R. A. (2011). Stimulated variation and cascades: two processes in the evolution of complex technological systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 18, 309–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. O’Brien, M. J., & Holland, T. D. (1990). Variation, selection and the archaeological record. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2, 31–79.Google Scholar
  176. O’Brien, M. J., & Lyman, R. L. (2000). Evolutionary archaeology: reconstructing and explaining historical lineages. In M. B. Schiffer (Ed.), Social theory in archaeology (pp. 126–142). Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  177. O’Brien, M. J., & Shennan, S. J. (Eds.). (2010). Innovation in cultural system: contribution from evolutionary anthropology. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  178. Olive, M., Pigeot, N., Taborin, Y., & Yvon, J.-M. (2005). Toujours plus longue, une lame à crête exceptionnelle à Étiolles (Essone). Revue Archéologique de Picardie, 22, 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Oshri, A., & Schick, T. (1998). The lithics. In T. Schick (Ed.), The cave of the warrior. A 4th millennium burial in the Judean desert (pp. 59–62). Israel Antiquities Reports: Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  180. Pagli, M. (2013). Variabilité du Moustérien au Proche-Orient. Approche géographique des dynamiques de changement en milieu méditerranéen et en milieu steppique. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  181. Parry, W. J., & Kelly, R. L. (1987). Expedient core technology and sedentism. In J. K. Johnson & C. A. Morrow (Eds.), The organization of core technology (pp. 285–304). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  182. Pawlik, A. (2004). An Early Bronze Age pocket lighter. In E. A. Walker, F. Wenban-Smith, & F. Healy (Eds.), Lithics in action: papers from the conference lithic studies in the year 2000 (pp. 149–151). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  183. Pelegrin, J. (1991). Les savoir-faire: une très longue histoire. Terrains, 16, 106–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Pelegrin, J. (2002). La production des grandes lames de silex du Grand-Pressigny. In J. Guilaine (Ed.), Matériaux, productions, circulations du Néolithique à l’Age du Bronze (pp. 131–148). Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  185. Pelegrin, J. (2007). Réflexion sur la notion de « spécialiste » dans la taille de la pierre au Paléolithique. In R. Desbrosse & A. Thévenin (Eds.), Arts et cultures de la préhistoire, hommage à Henri Delporte (pp. 315–318). Paris: Edition du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques.Google Scholar
  186. Pelegrin, J. (2012). New experimental observation for the characterization of pressure blade production technique. In P. M. Desrosiers (Ed.), The emergence of pressure blade making: from origin to modern experimentation (pp. 464–500). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  187. Pelegrin, J., Karlin, C., & Bodu, P. (1988). Chaînes opératoires: un outil pour le préhistorien. In J. Tixier (Ed.), Technologie préhistorique (pp. 55–62). Paris: Editions du CNRS.Google Scholar
  188. Perlès, C. (1991). Economie des matières premières et économie du débitage: deux concepts opposés? In 25 ans d’études technologiques en préhistoire: bilan et perspectives. Actes des XI e rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes, 18-20 octobre 1990 (pp. 35–46). Juan-les-Pins: APDCA.Google Scholar
  189. Perlès, C. (1992). In search of lithic strategies: a cognitive approach to prehistoric chipped stone assemblage. In J.-C. Gardin & C. S. Peebles (Eds.), Representations in archaeology (pp. 223–247). Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Perlès, C. (2009). Les industries lithiques néolithiques: logiques techniques et logiques sociales. In De Méditerranée et D’ailleurs... Mélanges offerts à Jean Guilaine (pp. 557–571). Toulouse: Archives d’Ecologie Préhistorique.Google Scholar
  191. Perrot, J. (1952). Les industries lithiques palestiniennes de la fin du Mésolithique à l’Age du Bronze. Israel Exploration Journal, 2, 73–81.Google Scholar
  192. Philip, G. (1988). Hoards of the Early and Middle Bronze Age in the Levant. World Archaeology, 20(2), 190–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Philip, G. (1989). Metal weapons of the Early and Middle Bronze Ages in Syria-Palestine. Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  194. Philip, G. (1991). Tin, arsenic, lead: alloying practices in Syria-Palestine around 2000 BC. Levant, 23, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Philip, G., Glog, P. W., & Dungworth, D. (2003). Copper metallurgy in the Jordan valley from the third to the first millennia BC. Chemical, metallographic and lead isotope analyses of artifacts from Pella. Levant, 35, 71–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Pleiner, R. (2006). Iron in archaeology. Early European blacksmiths. Praha: Archaeologický ústav.Google Scholar
  197. Pollock, S. (2008). Rubbish, routines, and practice: chipped stone blades from Uruk-period Sharafabad, Iran. Iran, 46, 43–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Praciunas, M. M. (2007). Bifacial cores and flake production efficiency: an experimental test of the technological assumption. American Antiquity, 72, 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Richard, S. (2006). Early Bonze Age IV transition: an archaeometallurgical study. In S. Gitin, J. E. Wright, & J. P. Dessel (Eds.), Confronting the past: archaeological and historical essays on ancient Israel in honor of Williams G. Dever (pp. 119–132). Eisenbrauns: Winnona Lake.Google Scholar
  200. Roby, F. (2006). Vers la voiture sans pétrole. Paris: EDP Science.Google Scholar
  201. Rocca, R. (2013). Peut-on définir des aires culturelles au Paléolithique inférieur? Originalité des premières industries lithiques en Europe centrale dans le cadre du peuplement de l’Europe. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La Défense.Google Scholar
  202. Rocca, R., Abruzzese, C., & Aureli, D. (2016). European Acheuleans: critical perspective from the east. Quaternary International, 411, 402–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rodríguez-Alegria, E. (2008). Narratives of conquest, colonialism, and cutting-edge technology. American Anthropologist, 110(1), 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rosen, S. A. (1982). Flint sickle blades of the late proto-historical and early historical periods in Israel. Tel Aviv, 9, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Rosen, S. A. (1983). The Canaanean blade and the Early Bronze Age. Israel Exploration Journal, 33, 15–29.Google Scholar
  206. Rosen, S. A. (1984). The adoption of metallurgy in the Levant: a lithic perspective. Current Anthropology, 25(4), 504–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rosen, S. A. (1986). Note on the Gezer flint caches. In W. G. Dever (Ed.), Gezer IV (pp. 259–263). Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College.Google Scholar
  208. Rosen, S. A. (1989). The analysis of Early Bronze Age chipped stone industry: a summary statement. In P. de Miroschedji (Ed.), L’urbanisation de la Palestine à l’Age du Bronze ancien: bilan et perspectives des recherches actuelles (pp. 199–221). Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  209. Rosen, S. A. (1993). Metals, rocks, specialization, and the beginning of urbanism in the northern Negev. In A. Biran & J. Aviram (Eds.), Biblical archaeology today, 1990: Proceedings of the second international congress on Biblical archeology (pp. 41–56). Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.Google Scholar
  210. Rosen, S. A. (1996). The decline and fall of flint. In G. H. Odell (Ed.), Stone tools, theoretical insights into human prehistory (pp. 129–152). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  211. Rosen, S. A. (1997). Lithic after Stone Age: a handbook of stone tools from the Levant. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  212. Rosen, S. A. (2004). The chipped stone assemblage. In D. J. Ussishkin (Ed.), The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (Vol. 5, pp. 2197–2225). Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology.Google Scholar
  213. Rosen, S. A. (2017). Revolutions in the desert: the rise of mobile pastoralism in the Southern Levant. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  214. Rosen, S. A., & Vardi, J. (2014). Chipped stone assemblage from Tell Jemmeh. In D. Ben-Shlomo & W. Van Beek (Eds.), The Smithsonian Institution excavation at Tell Jemmeh, Israel, 1970–1990 (pp. 987–1003). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.Google Scholar
  215. Rosen, S. A., Shugar, A., & Vardi, J. (2014). Function and value in sickle segment analysis: Odellian perspective. In M. J. Shott (Ed.), Works in stone. Contemporary perspectives on lithic analysis (pp. 116–130). Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  216. Roux, V. (2003). A dynamic systems framework for studying technological change: application to the emergence of the potter’s wheel in the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 10, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Roux, V. (2007a). Ethnoarchaeology: a non historical science of reference necessary for interpreting the past. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 14(2), 153–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Roux, V. (2007b). Non-emprunt du façonnage au tour dans le Levant Sud entre le Ve et le IVe millénaire av. J.-C.: des régularités pour des scénarios historiques particuliers. In P. Rouillard, C. Perlès, & E. Grimaud (Eds.), Mobilités, immobilisme. L’emprunt et son refus (pp. 202–213). Paris: Boccard.Google Scholar
  219. Roux, V. (2013). Spreading of innovative technical traits and cumulative technical evolution: continuity or discontinuity? Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20, 312–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Roux, V. (2015a). Standardization of ceramic assemblages: transmission mechanisms and diffusion of morpho-functional traits across social boundaries. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 40, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Roux, V. (2015b). Cultural transmission, migration and plain wheel-made pottery in the Middle Bronze Age II Southern Levant. In C. Glatz (Ed.), Plain pottery traditions of the eastern Mediterranean and near eastern: production, use and social significance (pp. 68–88). London: UCL Institute of Archaeology Publication.Google Scholar
  222. Roux, V., & Courty, M.-A. (2013). Introduction to discontinuities and continuities: theories, methods and proxies for a historical and sociological approach to evolution of past societies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Roux, V., & de Miroschedji, P. (2007). Revisiting the history of the potter’s wheel in the Southern Levant. Levant, 41(2), 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Roux, V., Mille, B., & Pelegrin, J. (2013). Innovations céramiques, métallurgiques et lithiques au Chalcolithique: mutations sociales, mutations techniques. In J. Jaubert, N. Fourment & P. Depaepe (Eds.), Transitions, ruptures et continuité durant la Préhistoire: Evolution des techniques, comportements funéraires, Néolithique ancien (pp. 61–74). Société Préhistorique Française.Google Scholar
  225. Rowan, Y. M., & Golden, J. (2009). The Chalcolithic period of the Southern Levant: a synthetic review. Journal of World Prehistory, 22, 1–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rowlands, M. (1971). The archaeological interpretation of prehistoric metalworking. World Archaeology, 3(2), 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Runnels, C. (1982). Flakes-stone artifacts in Greece during the historical period. Journal of Field Archaeology, 9, 363–373.Google Scholar
  228. Runnels, C. (1994). Tinderflint and firemaking in the historical period. Lithic Technology, 19(1), 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Schiffer, M. B. (1990). The influence of surface treatment on heating effectiveness of ceramic vessels. Journal of Archaeological Science, 17(4), 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Schiffer, M. B. (1996). Some relationship between behavioral and evolutionary archaeologies. American Antiquity, 61, 643–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Schiffer, M. B. (2007). Some thoughts on the archaeological study of social organization. In M. Skibo, M. Graves, & M. Stark (Eds.), Archaeological anthropology: perspectives in methods and theories (pp. 57–71). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  232. Schiffer, M. B. (2011). Studying technological change: a behavioral approach. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  233. Schiffer, M. B., & Skibo, J. M. (1987). Theory and experiment in the study of technological change. Current Anthropology, 28, 594–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Schiffer, M. B., Butts, T. C., & Grimm, K. K. (1994). Taking charge: the electric automobile in America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  235. Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive on! A social history of the motor car. London: Granta Books.Google Scholar
  236. Shalev, S. (1991). Two different copper industries in the Chalcolithic culture of Israel. In C. Eluère & J. P. Mohen (Eds.), La découverte du métal (pp. 413–424). Paris: Picard.Google Scholar
  237. Shalev, S. (1994). The change in metal production from the Chalcolithic period to the Early Bronze Age in Israel and Jordan. Antiquity, 68, 630–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Shalev, S. (2004). Swords and daggers in Late Bronze Age Canaan. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur.Google Scholar
  239. Shalev, S. (2009). Metal and society: production and distribution of metal weapons in the Levant during the Middle Bronze Age II. In S. A. Rosen & V. Roux (Eds.), Techniques and peoples: anthropological perspectives on technology in the archaeology of the proto-historic and early historic periods in the Southern Levant (pp. 69–80). Paris: De Boccard.Google Scholar
  240. Shennan, S. J. (2011). Descend with modification and the archaeological record. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 36, 1070–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Sherratt, S. (2000). Circulation of metals and the end of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. In C. F. E. Pare (Ed.), Metals make the world go round: the supply and circulation of metals in Bronze Age Europe. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Birmingham in June 1997 (pp. 82–98). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  242. Sherratt, A., & Sherratt, S. (1991). From luxuries to commodities: the nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age trading system. In N. H. Gale (Ed.), Bronze Age trade in the Mediterranean: papers presented at the conference held at Rewley House, Oxford in December 1989 (pp. 351–386). Jonsered: P. Åström.Google Scholar
  243. Sherratt, A., & Sherratt, S. (2001). Technological change in the East Mediterranean Bronze Age: capital, resources and marketing. In A. J. Shortland (Ed.), The social context of technological change. Egypt and near east, 1650–1050 (pp. 15–38). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  244. Sherwood, A. N., Nikolic, M., Humphrey, J. W., & Oleson, J. P. (Eds.). (1998). Greek and Roman technology: a sourcebook. Annotated translation of Greek and Latin texts and documents. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  245. Shimelmitz, R. (2009). Variability in specialized Canaanean blade production of the Early Bronze Age Levant. In S. A. Rosen & V. Roux (Eds.), Techniques and people. Anthropological perspectives on technology in the archaeology of the proto-historic and early Historic periods in the Southern Levant (pp. 135–156). Paris: De Boccard.Google Scholar
  246. Shimelmitz, R., & Zuckerman, S. (2014). Flint knapping in the Late Bronze Age, a dying technology? A perspective from the lower city oh Hazor. Levant, 46(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Simondon, G. (1989). Du mode d’existence des objets techniques. Paris: Aubier.Google Scholar
  248. Skakun, N. N. (2008). Les grandes lames de silex du mobilier funéraire des proto-éleveurs du sud de l’Europe orientale. Préhistoire Méditerranéenne, 14. Accessed 28 Feb 2018.
  249. Soriano, S. (2000). Outillage bifacial et outillage sur éclat au Paléolithique ancien et moyen: coexistence et interaction. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Nanterre: Université de Paris X- Nanterre.Google Scholar
  250. Stech-Wheeler, T., Muhly, J. D., Maxwell-Hyslop, K. R., & Maddin, R. (1981). Iron at Taanach and early iron metallurgy in the eastern Mediterranean. American Journal of Archaeology, 85(3), 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Steensberg, A. (1943). Ancient harvesting implements. Copenaghen: Nationalmuseets Skrifter.Google Scholar
  252. Steiner, M. L., & Killebrew, A. E. (Eds.). (2014). The archaeology of the Levant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  253. Tadmor, M., Kedem, D., Begemann, F., Hauptmann, A., Pernicka, E., & Schmitt-Strecker, S. (1995). The Nahal Mishmar hoard from the Judean Desert: technology, composition, and provenance. Atiqot, 27, 95–148.Google Scholar
  254. Torrence, R. (Ed.). (1989). Time, energy and stone tools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  255. van Gijn, A. L. (1988). The use of Bronze Age flint sickles in the Netherlands: a preliminary report. In S. Beyries (Ed.), Industries lithiques: tracéologie et technologie (pp. 197–218). Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  256. Vardi, J. (2011). Sickle blades and sickles of the sixth and fifth millennia BCE in light of the finds from the Chalcolithic sickle blade workshop site of Beit Eshel. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Beersheba: Ben Gurion University of the Negev.Google Scholar
  257. Vardi, J., & Gilead, I. (2011). Side-blow blade-flakes from the Ghassulian sickle blade workshop of Beit Eshel: a Chalcolithic solution to a Neolithic riddle. In E. Healy, S. Campbell, & O. Maeda (Eds.), The state of the stone terminologies, continuities and contexts in near eastern lithics (pp. 343–356). Berlin: Ex Oriente.Google Scholar
  258. Vardi, J., & Gilead, I. (2013). Keeping the razor sharp: hafting and maintenance of sickles in the southern Levant during the 6th and 5th millennia BC. In F. Borrell, J. Ibáñez, & M. Molist (Eds.), Stone tools in transition: from hunter-gatherers to farming societies in the near east (pp. 377–393). Barcelona: Servei de Publicacions.Google Scholar
  259. Whittaker, J. C. (2000). The ethnoarchaeology of threshing in Cyprus. Near Eastern Archaeology, 63, 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Yahalom-Mack, N., & Eliyahu-Behar, A. (2015). The transition from bronze to iron in Canaan: chronology, technology, and context. Radiocarbon, 57(2), 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Yerkes, R. W., & Barkai, R. (2004). Microwear analysis of Chalcolithic bifacial tools. In N. Scheftelowitz & R. Oren (Eds.), Giv’at Ha-Oranim. A Late Chalcolithic site (pp. 110–124). Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology.Google Scholar
  262. Young, R., & Humphrey, J. (1999). Flint use in England after the Bronze Age: time for a re-evaluation? Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 65, 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Zaccagnini, C. (1987). Aspect of ceremonial exchange in the near east during the late second millennium BC. In M. J. Rowland, M. T. Larsen, & K. Kristiansen (Eds.), Centre and periphery in the ancient world (pp. 57–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Recherche Français à JérusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Bible, Archaeology and Near Eastern StudiesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeershevaIsrael
  3. 3.Département d’AnthropologieUniversité de Paris Ouest Nanterre- La DéfenseNanterreFrance

Personalised recommendations