Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 313–333 | Cite as

Integration of Complementary Archaeological Prospection Data from a Late Iron Age Settlement at Vesterager—Denmark

  • Roland FilzwieserEmail author
  • Lis Helles Olesen
  • Geert Verhoeven
  • Esben Schlosser Mauritsen
  • Wolfgang Neubauer
  • Immo Trinks
  • Milena Nowak
  • Rebecca Nowak
  • Petra Schneidhofer
  • Erich Nau
  • Manuel Gabler
Article

Abstract

The complementary use of various archaeological prospection data sets offers a series of new possibilities for the investigation of prehistoric settlements. In addition to the separate interpretations of the single methods, the implementation of image fusion provides an additional tool to obtain an even higher degree of data integration during the interpretation process. To investigate some possibilities and risks of image fusion, a procedure frequently used in the medical field but rarely applied in archaeology, various algorithms inside a dedicated MATLAB toolbox TAIFU (Toolbox for Archaeological Image FUsion) were tested on the geophysical prospection data from an Iron Age settlement near Vesterager in West Jutland, Denmark. The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology had conducted large-scale, high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetometry surveys at the site in 2014, based on its discovery by the Ringkøbing Museum through aerial photos and the results of a follow-up excavation in 2009. The aim was to determine if, and to what extent, geophysical prospection together with a novel integrative interpretational approach was able to add more detailed information to an already known prehistoric settlement. Results yielded a variety of deeper insights into the separate farms (dated to around AD 400), including the discovery of several new structures and more information about the construction of the longhouses, as well as a first suggestion on how to implement image fusion into the process of analysis and archaeological interpretation of geophysical data sets.

Keywords

Image fusion GPR Magnetometry Archaeological interpretation Iron Age settlement Denmark 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (archpro.lbg.ac.at) is based on the cooperation of the Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (A), the University of Vienna (A), the Vienna University of Technology (A), ZAMG, the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (A), the Province of Lower Austria (A), Airborne Technologies (A), 7reasons (A), the Austrian Academy of Sciences (A), the Austrian Archaeological Institute (A), RGZM, the Roman-Germanic Central Museum Mainz (D), the National Historical Museums—Arkeologerna (S), the University of Birmingham (GB), Vestfold County Council (N), and NIKU—the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (N).

Holstebro Museum is one of 27 archaeological museums in Denmark and home for the first bigger project on aerial archaeology and non-destructive archaeology in Denmark.

Furthermore, we would like to thank all the farmers and landowners for permitting our work on their fields, as well as the anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and Kelly Gillikin for proofreading.

References

  1. Conyers, L. B. (2013). Ground-penetrating radar for archaeology. Lanham, California: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  2. Doneus, M., & Neubauer, W. (1998). 2D combination of prospection data. Archaeological Prospection, 5(February), 29–56. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-0763(199803)5:1<29::aid-arp92>3.0.co;2-t.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Draganits, E., Doneus, M., Gansum, T., Gustavsen, L., Nau, E., Tonning, C., et al. (2015). The late Nordic Iron Age and Viking Age royal burial site of Borre in Norway: ALS- and GPR-based landscape reconstruction and harbour location at an uplifting coastal area. Quaternary International, 367, 96–110. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.04.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eriksen, P., & Henningsen, H. (1995). En gård fra vikingetiden nær Staby kirke. FRAM, 52–63.Google Scholar
  5. Eriksen, P., & Olesen, L. H. (2000). Vikingetiden. In K. Dalsgaard, P. Eriksen, J. V. Jensen, & J. R. Rømer (Eds.), Mellem hav og hede. Landskab og bebyggelse i Ulfborg herred indtil 1700 (pp. 144–173). Aarhus.Google Scholar
  6. Eriksen, P., & Olesen, L. H. (2002). Fortiden set fra himlen. Luftfotoarkæologi i Vestjylland. Holstebro: Holstebro Museum.Google Scholar
  7. Eriksen, P., Egeberg, T., Olesen, L. H., & Rostholm, H. (2009). Vikinger i Vest - Vikingetiden i Vestjylland. Højbjerg: Jysk Arkæologisk Selskab.Google Scholar
  8. Ethelberg, P., Hardt, N., Poulsen, B., & Sørensen, A. B. (2003). Det Sønderjyske Landbrugs Historie (2nd ed.). Haderslev.Google Scholar
  9. Filzwieser, R., Olesen, L. H., Neubauer, W., Trinks, I., Mauritsen, E. S., Schneidhofer, P., et al. (2017). Large-scale geophysical archaeological prospection pilot study at Viking Age and Medieval sites in West Jutland. Denmark. Accepted for publication in Archaeological Prospection. doi: 10.1002/arp.1576.
  10. Gaffney, C., & Gater, J. (2003). Revealing the buried past: geophysics for archaeologists. Tempus.Google Scholar
  11. GEUS. (1989). Geological survey of Denmark and Greeland, Digital geological map of Denmark 1:200000. http://www.geus.dk/UK/data-maps/Pages/j200-dk.aspx. Accessed 24 April 2017.
  12. Hatt, G. (1953). An early Roman Iron Age dwelling site in Holmsland, West Jutland. Acta Archaeologica, 24, 1–25.Google Scholar
  13. Hinterleitner, A., Neubauer, W., & Trinks, I. (2013). Removing the influence of vehicles used in motorized magnetic prospection systems. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection Vienna, May 29th – June 2nd 2013, 384–386.Google Scholar
  14. James, A. P., & Dasarathy, B. V. (2014). Medical image fusion: a survey of the state of the art. Information Fusion, 19, 4–19. doi: 10.1016/j.inffus.2013.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Larsson, L., Trinks, I., Söderberg, B., Gabler, M., Dell’Unto, N., Neubauer, W., & Ahlström, T. (2015). Interdisciplinary archaeological prospection, excavation and 3D documentation exemplified through the investigation of a burial at the Iron Age settlement site of Uppåkra in Sweden. Archaeological Prospection. doi: 10.1002/arp.
  16. Nau, E., Olesen, L. H., Schneidhofer, P., Gabler, M., Filzwieser, R., & Mauritsen, E. S. (2015). Large-scale high-resolution GPR and magnetic prospection in West Jutland, Denmark. Archaeologia Polona, 53, 485–488.Google Scholar
  17. Neubauer, W. (2001). Magnetische Prospektion in der Archäologie. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  18. Neubauer, W. (2004). GIS in archaeology: the interface between prospection and excavation. Archaeological Prospection, 11(3), 159–166. doi: 10.1002/arp.231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neubauer, W., & Eder-Hinterleitner, A. (1997). Resistivity and magnetics of the Roman town Carnuntum, Austria: an example of combined interpretation of prospection data. Archaeological Prospection, 4(4), 179–189. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0763(199712)4:4<179::AID-ARP85>3.0.CO;2-U.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Olesen, L. H. (2011). An aerial view of the past—aerial archaeology in Denmark. Remote sensing for archaeological heritage management: proceedings of the 11th EAC Heritage Management Symposium, Reykjavík, Iceland, 25–27 March 2010, EAC Occasi, 275–282.Google Scholar
  21. Olesen, L. H., & Mauritsen, E. S. (2015). Luftfotoarkæologi i Danmark. Holstebro: Holstebro Museum.Google Scholar
  22. Powlesland, D., Lyall, J., & Donoghue, D. (1997). Enhancing the record through remote sensing: the application and integration of multi-sensor, non-invasive remote sensing techniques for the enhancement of the Sites and Monuments Record. Heslerton Parish Project, N. Yorkshire, England. Internet Archaeology, (2). doi: 10.11141/ia.2.4
  23. Pregesbauer, M., Trinks, I., & Neubauer, W. (2013). Automatic classification of near surface magnetic anomalies—an object oriented approach. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection Vienna, May 29th – June 2nd 2013, 350–353.Google Scholar
  24. Sandici, V., Scherzer, D., Hinterleitner, A., Trinks, I., & Neubauer, W. (2013). An unified magnetic data acquisition software for motorized geophysical prospection. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection Vienna, May 29th – June 2nd 2013, 378–379.Google Scholar
  25. Schneidhofer, P., Nau, E., Hinterleitner, A., Lugmayr, A., Bill, J., Gansum, T., et al. (2016). Palaeoenvironmental analysis of large-scale, high-resolution GPR and magnetometry data sets: the Viking Age site of Gokstad in Norway. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. doi: 10.1007/s12520-015-0312-x.
  26. Schofield, A. J. (1989). Understanding early medieval pottery distributions: cautionary tales and their implications for future research. Antiquity, 63(240), 460–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scollar, I., Tabbagh, A., Hesse, A., & Herzog, I. (1990). Archaeological prospecting and remote sensing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Sevara, C., Pregesbauer, M., Doneus, M., Verhoeven, G., & Trinks, I. (2016). Pixel versus object—a comparison of strategies for the semi-automated mapping of archaeological features using airborne laser scanning data. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 5, 485–498. doi: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.12.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trinks, I., Johansson, B., Gustafsson, J., Emilsson, J., Friborg, J., Gustafsson, C., et al. (2010). Efficient, large-scale archaeological prospection using a true three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar array system. Archaeological Prospection, 17, 175–186. doi: 10.1002/arp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Trinks, I., Neubauer, W., Doneus, M. (2012). Prospecting archaeological landscapes. In EuroMed 2012 - International Conference on Cultural Heritage, Ioannides M. et al (eds), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 7616. Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg; 21–29.Google Scholar
  31. Trinks, I., Neubauer, W., Nau, E., Gabler, M., Wallner, M., Hinterleitner, A., Biwall, A., Doneus, M., & Pregesbauer, M. (2013). Archaeological Prospection of the Unesco World Cultural Hertitage Site Birka-Hovgården. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection Vienna, May 29th – June 2nd 2013, 39–40.Google Scholar
  32. Trinks, I., Neubauer, W., & Hinterleitner, A. (2014). First high-resolution GPR and magnetic archaeological prospection at the Viking Age settlement of Birka in Sweden. Archaeological Prospection, 21(3), 157–234. doi: 10.1002/arp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Trinks, I., Neubauer, W., Doneus, M., Hinterleitner, A., Doneus, N., Verhoeven, G., et al. (2015). Interdisciplinary archaeological prospection at unprecented scale and resolution. The first five years of the LBI ArchPro Research Initiative 2010-2015. Archaeologia Polona, 53, 144–147.Google Scholar
  34. Verhoeven, G. (2009). Beyond conventional boundaries: new technologies, methodologies, and procedures for the benefit of aerial archaeological data acquisition and analysis. University of Gent.Google Scholar
  35. Verhoeven, G., Nowak, M., & Nowak, R. (2016). Pixel-level image fusion for archaeological interpretative mapping. In E. U. P. de València (Ed.), Proceedings of ARQUEOLÓGICA 2.0 – 8th International Congress on Archaeology, Computer Graphics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation. Advanced 3D documentation, modelling and reconstruction of cultural heritage objects, monuments and sites. ARQUEOLÓGICA 2.0, (pp. 404–407). Valencia.Google Scholar
  36. Webley, L. (2008). Iron Age households—structure and practice in Western Denmark, 500 BC - AD 200. Højbjerg.Google Scholar
  37. Zimmermann, W. H. (1991). Erntebergung in Rutenberg und Diemen aus archäologischer und volkskundlicher Sicht. Néprajzi Értesítö, 71–73, 71–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Filzwieser
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lis Helles Olesen
    • 2
  • Geert Verhoeven
    • 1
  • Esben Schlosser Mauritsen
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Neubauer
    • 1
    • 4
  • Immo Trinks
    • 1
  • Milena Nowak
    • 1
  • Rebecca Nowak
    • 1
  • Petra Schneidhofer
    • 1
  • Erich Nau
    • 1
  • Manuel Gabler
    • 1
  1. 1.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual ArchaeologyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Holstebro MuseumHolstebroDenmark
  3. 3.Ringkøbing-Skjern MuseumSkjernDenmark
  4. 4.Vienna Institute for Archaeological ScienceUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations