Developing FTIR Microspectroscopy for the Analysis of Animal-Tissue Residues on Stone Tools
- 774 Downloads
The analysis of microscopic residues on stone tools provides one of the most direct ways to reconstruct the functions of such artifacts. However, new methods are needed to strengthen residue identifications based upon visible-light microscopy. In this work, we establish that reflectance Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) can be used to document IR spectra of animal-tissue residues on experimental stone tools. First, we present a set of reflectance FTIRM standards for the most commonly identified animal-tissue residues on stone tools: skin, meat, fat, hair, blood, feather barbules, fish scales, and bone. We provide spectral peak assignments for each residue and demonstrate that high-quality reflectance FTIRM spectra can be generated under ideal circumstances. Second, we document the spectra for these residues when they are located on a stone substrate such as flint or obsidian. We discuss procedures for correcting spectra that are affected by specular reflection and explain the effects of spectral interference from the stone. Our results show that reflectance FTIRM is sensitive to small intra-sample differences in composition. This means that it will record the effects of decomposition in ancient residues. The methodological developments we present here will help lithic residue analysts incorporate in situ reflectance FTIRM into their analysis protocols to strengthen identifications.
KeywordsFTIR microspectroscopy residue analysis lithic analysis
This work was funded by NSF grant # BCS-1420702. It was carried out at the University of Minnesota in the Evolutionary Anthropology Laboratories and in the Characterization Facility, which receives partial support from the NSF through the MRSEC program. Many thanks to Matt Edling, Greg Haugstad, Keith Manthie, Colin McFadden, Marjorie Schalles, Nora Last, Kara Kersteter, and Gil Tostevin. Thanks also to the three anonymous reviewers whose comments and suggestions helped improve the final manuscript.
- Croft, S., Monnier, G. F., Radini, A., Little, A., & Milner, N. (2016). Lithic residue survival and characterisation at Star Carr: a burial experiment. Internet Archaeology, 1–88.Google Scholar
- Crowther, A. Haslam, M., Oakden, N., Walde, D., & Mercader, J. (2014). Documenting contamination in ancient starch laboratories. Journal of Archaeological Science, 49, 90–104.Google Scholar
- Feughelman, M. (1997). Mechanical properties and structure of alpha-keratin fibres: wool, human hair, and related fibres. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.Google Scholar
- Fronticelli, C., Sanna, M., Perez-Alvarado, G., Karavitis, M., Lu, A., & Brinigar, W. (1995). Allosteric modulation by tertiary structure in mammalian hemoglobins—introduction of the functional characteristics of bovine hemoglobin into human hemoglobin by five amino acid substitutions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 30588–30592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gregg, K., & Rogers, G. E. (1986). Chapter 33: feather keratin: composition, structure and biogenesis, in part XIII: skin proteins. In J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy, & K. Sylvia Richards (Eds.), Biology of the integument, part 2: vertebrates (pp. 666–694). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kolczyńska-Szafraniec, U., & Bilińska, B. (1993). Infrared studies of natural pheomelanins. Current Topics in Biophysics, 16(2), 77–80.Google Scholar
- Lieber, R. L. (2002). Skeletal muscle structure, function, and plasticity. In The physiological basis of rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Lombard, M. (2014). In situ presumptive test for blood residues applied to 62,000-year-old stone tools. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 69, 80–86.Google Scholar
- Matoltsy, A. G. (1986a). Chapter 14 in biology of the integument 2: vertebrates. In J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy, & K. Syvia Richards (Eds.), Structure and function of the mammalian epidermis (pp. 255–271). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Matoltsy, A. G. (1986b). Chapter 15 in biology of the integument 2: vertebrates. In J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy, & K. Syvia Richards (Eds.), Dermis (pp. 272–277). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Pearson, J. F., & Slifkin, M. A. (1972). The infrared spectra of amino acids and dipeptides. Spectrochimica Acta, Vol., 28A, 2408–2417.Google Scholar
- Pedergnana, A., Asryan, L., Fernández-Marchena, J. L., &. Ollé, A. (2016). Modern contaminants affecting microscopic residue analysis on stone tools: A word of caution. Micron, 86, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Powell, B. C., & Rogers, G. E. (1986). Chapter 34: hair keratin: composition, structure, and biogenesis, in part XIII: skin proteins. In J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy, & K. Sylvia Richards (Eds.), Biology of the integument, part 2: vertebrates (pp. 695–721). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sobolik, K. (1996). Lithic organic residue analysis: an example from the southwestern archaic. Journal of Field Archaeology, 23, 461–469.Google Scholar
- Solodenko, N., Zupancich, A., Cesaro, S. N., Marder, O., Lemorini, C., & Barkai, R. (2015). Fat residue and use-wear found on Acheulian Biface and scraper associated with butchered elephant remains at the site of Revadim, Israel. PloS One, 10,(3): e0118572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118572.
- Stettenheim, P. (2000). The integumentary morphology of modern birds—an overview. American Zoologist, 40, 461–477.Google Scholar
- Uitto, J. (1986). Chapter 40 in biology of the integument 2: vertebrates. In J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy, & K. Syvia Richards (Eds.), Interstitial collagens (pp. 800–809). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Warriss, P. D. (2010). Meat science, 2nd edition. In An introductory text. Oxfordshire, U.K.: CABI.Google Scholar
- Williamson, B. (2004). Middle stone age tool function from residue analysis at Sibudu Cave. South African Journal of Science, 100, 174–178.Google Scholar