Experiencing Ancient Buildings from a 3D GIS Perspective: a Case Drawn from the Swedish Pompeii Project
- 1.3k Downloads
In recent times, archaeological documentation strategies have been considerably improved by the use of advanced 3D acquisition systems. Laser scanning, photogrammetry and computer vision techniques provide archaeologists with new opportunities to investigate and document the archaeological record. In spite of this, the amount of data collected and the geometrical complexity of the models resulting from such acquisition processes have always prevented their systematic integration into a geographic information systems (GIS) environment. Recent technological advances occurred in the visualization of 3D contents, led us to overcome the aforementioned limitations and set up a work pipeline in which was possible to put the 3D models not only in the context of data visualization but also in the frame of spatial analysis. The case study described is a part of the Swedish Pompeii Project, a research and fieldwork activity started in 2000 with the purpose of recording and investigating an entire Pompeian city block, Insula V 1. As an additional part of the research, a laser scanning acquisition campaign was conducted in the last few years. The resulting models were thus meant to be used to develop further research lines: Among these, a 3D GIS system was expected to be set up with the purpose to (i) collect in the same geo-referenced environment, different typologies of documentation gathered in the context of the Swedish Pompeii Project; (ii) inter-connect 3D models with the project website; (iii) use the third dimension as a further analytical field of investigation, in the form of spatial analysis and cognitive simulation.
KeywordsPompeii 3D GIS Digital archaeology Virtual archaeology Visualscape analysis
This research activity was funded by the Swedish Research Council Grant (340-2012-5751) Archaeological information in the digital society (ARKDIS), by Fondazione Famiglia Rausing, by C.M. Lerici Foundation and by Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation. The authors also would like to thank Renée Forsell for her precious consultancy during all the phases of the project.
- Agugiaro, G., Remondino, F., Girardi, G., Von Schwerin, J., Richards-Rissetto, H., De Amicis, R. (2011). QueryArch3D: querying and visualising three-dimensional archaeological models in a web-based interface. Geoinformatics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University. Resource document. http://3dom.fbk.eu/sites/3dom.fbk.eu/files/pdf/Agugiaro_etal_CIPA2011.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Agugiaro, G, & Remondino, F. (2014). 3D GIS for Cultural Heritage Sites: The QueryArch3D Prototype. I Campana, S. & Remondino, F. (eds.), 3D surveying and modeling in archaeology and cultural heritage. Theory and best practices. BAR international series, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Allen, K. M. S., Green, S. W., & Zubrow, E. B. R. (Eds.). (1990). Interpreting space: GIS and archaeology. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Allen, P., Feiner, S., Troccoli, A., Benko, H., Ishak, E., and Smith, B. (2004). Seeing into the past: creating a 3D modeling pipeline for archaeological visualization. Proceedings of the 3D data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission, 2nd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization, and Transmission (3DPVT'04) (pp. 751–758). Thessalonika: IEEE Computer SocietyGoogle Scholar
- Allison, P.M., (1997). Artefact distribution and spatial function in Pompeian houses. In B. Rawson and P. Weaver (eds.), The Roman family in Italy: status, sentiment and space, 321–354. Oxford: Clarendon PressGoogle Scholar
- Barceló, J.A., De Castro, O., Traver, D., and Vicente, O. (2003). A 3D model of an archaeological excavation. In M. Doerr, A. Sarris (eds.), The digital heritage of archaeology. Computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology, Proceedings of the 30th Conference, Heraklion, Crete, April 2002 (pp. 85–87). Greece: Hellenic Ministry of CultureGoogle Scholar
- Callieri, M., Dell Unto, N., Dellepiane, M., Scopigno, R., Soderberg, B. and Larsson, L.. (2011). Documentation and interpretation of an archeological excavation: an experience with dense stereo reconstruction tools. In VAST The 11th International Symposium on Virtual Reality Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 33–40. Eurographics.Google Scholar
- Chapman, H. (2006). Landscape archaeology and GIS. Stroud: Tempus.Google Scholar
- Cignoni, P, Callieri, M., Corsini, M., Dellepiane, M., Ganovelli, G., and Ranzuglia, G. (2008). MeshLab: an open-source mesh processing tool. In Computing, 129–136Google Scholar
- Conolly, J., & Lake, M. (Eds.). (2006). Geographical information systems in archaeology (Cambridge manuals in archaeology). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- De Reu J., Plets G., Verhoeven G., De Smedt P., Bats M., Cherretté B., De Maeyer W., Deconynck J., Herremans D., Laloo P., Van Meirvenne M.,and De Clercq W., (2013). Towards a three-dimensional cost-effective registration of the archaeological heritage. Journal of Archaeological Science.Google Scholar
- De Reu, J., De Smedt, P., Herremans, D., Van Meirvenne, M., Laloo, P., & De Clercq, W. (2014). On introducing an image-based 3D reconstruction method in archaeological excavation practice. Journal of Archaeological: Science.Google Scholar
- Dell’Unto, N. (2014). The Use of 3D Models for Intra-Site Investigation in Archaeology. I Campana, S. and Remondino, F. (eds.) 3D surveying and modeling in archaeology and cultural heritage. Theory and best practices. BAR international series Oxford.Google Scholar
- Dell’Unto, N., Ferdani, D., Leander Touati, A., Dellepiane, M., Callieri, M. and Lindgren, S. (2013a). Digital reconstruction and visualization in archaeology Case-study drawn from the work of the Swedish Pompeii Project. Addison, A., Guidi, G., De Luca, L. and Pescarin, S. (eds..) Digital Heritage International Congress (pp. 621–628)Google Scholar
- Dell’Unto, N., Callieri, M., Dellepiane, M., Leander Touati, A., Lindgren, S. and Larsson, C. (2013b) Pompei revived: scanning mission- insula V 1. In Earl, G., Sly, T., Chrysanthi, A., Murrieta-Flores, P., Papadopoulos, C., Romanowska, I. and Wheatley, D. (eds). The computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology (CAA). Southampton, 26–29 March 2012. Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Dellepiane, M., Dell’Unto, N., Callieri, M., Lindgren, S. and Scopigno, R. (2012). Archeological excavation monitoring using dense stereo matching techniques. Journal of Cultural Heritage. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
- Doneus, M. and Neubauer, W.(2005). Laser scanners for 3D documentation of stratigraphic excavations. International workshop on recording, modeling and visualization of cultural heritage, Ascona, May 22–27, Taylor and Francis 2005.Google Scholar
- ESRI (2010) What’s new in ArcGIS 3D Analyst 10, February 2010. Resource document. http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#//00qp0000000z000000.htm
- ESRI (2012). The Multipatch geometry type—an ESRI white paper. December 2008. Resource document. http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/multipatch-geometry-type.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Forte, M., Dell’Unto, N., Issavi, J., Onsurez, L. and Lercari, N. (2012). 3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era, 1 number 3 2012, 351–377.Google Scholar
- Foss, P. (1997). Watchful lares: Roman Household Organization and the rituals of cooking and dining. In R. Laurence and A. Wallace-Hadrill (eds.), Domestic Space in the Roman World: Pompeii and Beyond. PortsmouthGoogle Scholar
- Foss, P. W., & Dobbins, J. J. (Eds.). (2007). The world of Pompeii. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Frischer, B. (2008). From digital illustration to digital heuristics. In B. Frischer and A. Dakouri-Hild (eds.), Beyond Illustration. 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology (pp. 5–24). Oxford: BAR International Series 1805Google Scholar
- George, M. (1999). Repopulating the Roman House. In B. Rawson and P. Weaver (eds.), The Roman family in Italy: status, sentiment, space (p. 307). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Gillings, M. and Goodrick, G.T. (1996). Sensuous and reflexive GIS: exploring visualization and VRML. Internet Archaeology, 1. Resource document. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue1/gillings_index.html. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Goodchild, M. F. (1995). Geographic information systems and geographic research. In J. Pickels (Ed.), Ground truth (pp. 31–50). The Guilford Press: New York.Google Scholar
- Grahame, M. (1997). Public and private in the Roman house: the spatial order of the Casa del Fauno in R. Laurence and A. Wallace-Hadrill (eds.), Domestic Space in the Roman World and Beyond. Journal of Roman Archaeology, Supplementary Series, 22, 137–164.Google Scholar
- Haklay, M. E. (2002). Virtual reality and GIS: applications, trend and directions. In P. Fisher & D. Unwin (Eds.), Virtual reality in geography (pp. 47–57). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Hodder, I., (1999) The archaeological process: an introduction. Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
- Koehl, M. and Lott, C. (2008). De la maquette 3D au SIG 3D pour la gestion du patrimoine archéologique. SIG 2008. Resource document. http://www.esrifrance.fr/sig2008/insa_strasbourg.htm. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Landeschi, G., and Carrozzino, M. (2011). Communicating archaeological risk with web-based virtual reality: a case study. Internet Archaeology 31. Resource document. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue31/landeschi-carrozzino_index.html. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Landeschi, G., & Carrozzino, M. (2013). A 3D model for detecting and communicating the archaeological risk. In F. Contreras, M. Farjas, & F. J. Melero (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th annual conference on computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology—Granada (pp. 295–297). Oxford: Archeopress.Google Scholar
- Leander Touati, A.-M. (2010). Water, well-being and social complexity in insula V 1 a pompeian city block revisited. Opuscula, 3, 105–161.Google Scholar
- Lock, G. (2001). Theorising the practice or practising the theory: archaeology and GIS. Archaeologia Polona, 39, 153–64.Google Scholar
- Lock, G. (2003). Using computers in archaeology: towards virtual pasts. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
- Lock G., Stancic Z. (eds.) (1995). The impact of GIS on archaeology: a European perspective, New York, Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
- Losier, L.,M., Pouliot, J., and Fortin, M., (2007). 3D geometrical modeling of excavation units at the archaeological site of Tell ‘Acharneh (Syria). Journal of Archaeological Science 34, (pp. 272–288)Google Scholar
- Merlo, S. (2004). Enter the past. The E-way into the four dimensions of cultural heritage. CAA 2003n computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology. BAR international series 1227. In K. F. Ausserer, W. Brner, M. Goriany, & L. Karlhuber-Vckl (Eds.), The “contemporary mind”. 3D GIS as a challenge in excavation practice (pp. 276–279). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
- Opitz, R., and Nowlin, J. (2012). Photogrammetric modeling + GIS. Better methods for working with mesh data. ArcUser. Resource document. http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0312/files/archaeology-inventory.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2014.
- Paliou, E. (2013). Reconsidering the concept of visualscapes: recent advances in three-dimensional visibility analysis. In A. Bevan & M. Lake (Eds.), Computational approaches to archaeological spaces (pp. 243–263). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
- Paliou, E., and Knight, D.J. (2013). Mapping the senses: perceptual and social aspects of late antique liturgy in San Vitale, Ravenna. In F. Contreras, M. Farjasand F.J. Melero (eds.), Proceedings of CAA 2010, Computer Applications and Quantitative methods in Archaeology, International Conference, Granada 6–9 April 2010 (pp. 229–236).Google Scholar
- Scopigno, R., Callieri, M., Cignoni, P., Corsini, M., Dellepiane, M., Ponchio, F., & Ranzuglia, G. (2012). 3D models for cultural heritage: beyond plain visualization. IEEE Computer, 2011, 44(7), 48–55.Google Scholar
- Shanks, M., & Tilley, C. (Eds.). (1992). Reconstructing archaeology: theory and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Staub, T. (2009). Decorative effects and room functions. Evidence of thresholds studied in the residential quarters of insula V 1, Pompeii. Opuscula, 2, 205–218.Google Scholar
- Tilley, C. (1994). A phenomenology of landscape: places, paths and monuments. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
- Von Schwerin, J., Richards-Rissetto, H., Remondino, F., Agugiaro, G., Forte, M., Maqueda, R. (2011). The MayaArch3D project: digital technologies for research in Maya archaeology. Resource document. http://www.mayaarch3d.org/research/publications/ Accessed 25 October 2014.