Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 207–240 | Cite as

A Historical Sketch on the Concepts of Archaeological Association, Context, and Provenience

Article

Abstract

The archaeological concepts of association, context, and provenience have been known by archaeologists since the early nineteenth century, but the terms have not been used. Provenience is empirical and absolute; an association and a context are inferential and relative. These fundamental concepts have seldom been the subject of thoughtful discussion except when a particular association or context has implications far beyond the particular instance under study, such as in the context of considerations of claims for a pre-Clovis occupation of North America. Introductory archaeology textbooks published over the past 100 years do not always introduce the terms and sometimes fail to define them. Future discussion of the concepts should include several examples of what qualifies as evidence of an association or context, how the inference of an association or context was derived, and descriptions of analytical techniques used to determine if an inferred temporal association is valid.

Keywords

Association Concept Context Provenience Terminology Textbook 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to R. L. Bettinger, C. M. Darwent, G. T. Jones, R. L. Kelly, D. J. Meltzer, L. Nagaoka, and S. Wolverton for taking the introductory textbook survey. Three anonymous reviewers provided thoughtful suggestions on how to improve the discussion.

References

  1. Abler, W. L. (1984). A three-dimensional map of a paleontological quarry. University of Wyoming Contributions to Geology, 23, 9–14.Google Scholar
  2. Badè, W. F. (1934). A manual of excavation in the Near East. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Badgley, C. (1986). Counting individuals in mammalian fossil assemblages from fluvial environments. Palaios, 1, 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, G. (2007). Time perspectives, palimpsests and the archaeology of time. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 26, 198–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker, P. (1982). Techniques of archaeological excavation (2nd ed.). New York: Universe Books.Google Scholar
  6. Behrensmeyer, A. K. (1991). Terrestrial vertebrate accumulations. In P. A. Allison & D. E. G. Briggs (Eds.), Taphonomy: releasing the data locked in the fossil record (pp. 291–335). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  7. Benton, M. J. (2010). Studying function and behavior in the fossil record. PLoS Biology, 8, e1000321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binford, L. R. (1968). Archeological Perspectives. In S. R. Binford & L. R. Binford (Eds.), New perspectives in archeology (pp. 5–32). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  9. Binford, L. R. (1977). Olorgesailie deserves more than the usual book review. Journal of Anthropological Research, 33, 493–502.Google Scholar
  10. Binford, L. R. (1980). Willow smoke and dogs’ tails: hunter–gatherer settlement systems and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity, 45, 4–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bower, J. (1986). In search of the past: an introduction to archaeology. Chicago: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bowler, P. J. (1975). The changing meaning of “evolution”. Journal of the History of Ideas, 36, 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braidwood, R. J. (1960). Archeologists and what they do. New York: Franklin Watts.Google Scholar
  14. Brooks, R. L. (1982). Events in the archaeological context and archaeological explanation. Current Anthropology, 23, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Browman, D. L. (2002). Origins of stratigraphic excavation in North America: the Peabody Museum method and the Chicago method. In D. L. Browman & S. Williams (Eds.), New perspectives on the origins of Americanist archaeology (pp. 242–264). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  16. Browman, D. L. (2003). Origins of Americanist stratigraphic excavation methods. In J. Truncer (Ed.), Picking the lock of time: developing chronology in American archaeology (pp. 22–39). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  17. Browman, D. L., & Givens, D. R. (1996). Stratigraphic excavation: the first “new archaeology. American Anthropologist, 98, 80–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bunn, H. T. (1981). Archaeological evidence for meat-eating by Plio-Pleistocene hominids from Koobi Fora and Olduvai Gorge. Nature, 291, 574–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byers, D. A. (2002). Taphonomic analysis, associational integrity, and depositional history of the Fetterman mammoth, eastern Wyoming, USA. Geoarchaeology, 17, 417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Byers, D. S., & Johnson, F. (1939). Some methods used in excavating eastern shell heaps. American Antiquity, 4, 189–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Camp, C. L., & Hanna, G. D. (1937). Methods in paleontology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Carman, J. (2004). Excavating excavation: a contribution to the social archaeology of archaeology. In G. Carver (Ed.), Digging in the dirt: excavation in a new millennium (BAR International Series 1256) (pp. 47–51). Oxford: Hadrian Books.Google Scholar
  23. Carver, M. (2009). Archaeological investigation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Childe, V. G. (1929). The Danube in prehistory. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Childe, V. G. (1956a). A short introduction to archaeology. New York: Collier.Google Scholar
  26. Childe, V. G. (1956b). Piecing together the past: the interpretation of archaeological data. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, G. (1957). Archaeology and society: reconstructing the prehistoric past. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, D. L. (1968). Analytical archeology. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  29. Clements, F. E. (1936). Notes on archaeological methods. American Antiquity, 1, 193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collis, J. (2001). Digging up the past: an introduction to archaeological excavation. Phoenix Mill: Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Collis, J. R. (2004). Paradigms and excavation. In G. Carver (Ed.), Digging in the dirt: excavation in a new millennium (BAR International Series 1256) (pp. 33–43). Oxford: Hadrian Books.Google Scholar
  32. Colton, H. S. (1953). Field methods in archaeology prepared for archaeological expeditions of the Museum of Northern Arizona (2nd ed.). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona Society of Science and Art.Google Scholar
  33. Committee on State Archaeological Surveys. (1930). Guide leaflet for amateur archaeologists. Washington: National Research Council Reprint and Circular Series No. 93.Google Scholar
  34. Crawford, O. G. S. (1953). Archaeology in the field. London: Phoenix House.Google Scholar
  35. Cressman, L. S. (1951). Western prehistory in the light of carbon 14 dating. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 7, 289–313.Google Scholar
  36. Cross, T. A., & Homewood, P. W. (1997). Amanz Gressly’s role in founding modern stratigraphy. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 109, 1617–1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dancey, W. S. (1981). Archaeological field methods: an introduction. Minneapolis: Burgess.Google Scholar
  38. Dean, J. S. (1978). Independent dating in archaeological analysis. In M. B. Schiffer (Ed.), Advances in archaeological method and theory, vol. 1 (pp. 223–255). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  39. Deetz, J. (1967). Invitation to archaeology. Garden City: Natural History Press.Google Scholar
  40. Deetz, J. (1970). Archeology as a social science. In A. Fischer (Ed.) Current directions in anthropology: a special issue (pp. 115–125). Washington: American Anthropological Association Bulletin 3 (3, part 2).Google Scholar
  41. Dillehay, T. D. (1997). Monte Verde: a Late Pleistocene settlement in Chile, vol. II, the archaeological context. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  42. Droop, J. P. (1915). Archaeological excavation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Dunnell, R. C. (1992). The notion site. In J. Rossignol & L. Wandsnider (Eds.), Space, time, and archaeological landscapes (pp. 21–41). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  44. Dunnell, R. C. (2003). The first new archaeology and the development of chronological method. In J. Truncer (Ed.), Picking the lock of time: developing chronology in American archaeology (pp. 9–21). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  45. Eberth, D. A., Rogers, R. R., & Fiorillo, A. R. (2007). A practical approach to the study of bonebeds. In R. R. Rogers, D. A. Eberth, & A. R. Fiorillo (Eds.), Bonebeds: genesis, analysis, and paleobiological significance (pp. 265–331). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Erlandson, J. M., & Rockwell, T. K. (1987). Radiocarbon reversals and stratigraphic discontinuities: the effects of natural formation processes on coastal California archaeological sites. In D. T. Nash & M. D. Petraglia (Eds.), Natural formation processes and the archaeological record (BAR International Series 352) (pp. 51–73). Oxford: Hadrian Books.Google Scholar
  47. Fagan, B. M. (1972). In the beginning: an introduction to archaeology. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  48. Fagan, B. M. (1975). In the beginning: an introduction to archaeology (2nd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  49. Fagan, B. M. (1985). In the beginning: an introduction to archaeology (5th ed.). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  50. Fagan, B. M., & DeCorse, C. R. (2005). In the beginning: an introduction to archaeology (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  51. Feder, K. L. (2004). Linking to the past: a brief introduction to archaeology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Feder, K. L. (2008). Linking to the past: a brief introduction to archaeology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Feldmann, R. M., Chapman, R. E., & Hannibal, J. T. (Eds.). (1989). Paleotechniques. Paleontological Society Special Publication No. 4. Knoxville: University of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  54. Fiedel, S., & Haynes, G. (2004). A premature burial: comments on Grayson and Meltzer’s “Requiem for overkill. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fisher, C. S. (1929). The excavation of Armageddon. Oriental Institute Communications No. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Fladmark, K. R. (1978). A buide to basic archaeological field procedures. Department of Archaeology Publication No. 4, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  57. Foote, M., & Miller, A. I. (2007). Principles of paleontology (3rd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  58. Friscia, A. R., Van Valkenburgh, B., Spencer, L., & Harris, J. (2008). Chronology and spatial distribution of large mammal bones in Pit 91, Rancho La Brea. Palaios, 23, 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goldring, R. (1999). Field palaeontology (2nd ed.). Essex: Longman.Google Scholar
  60. Goodwin, A. J. H. (1931). On some problems of association and chronology in prehistory. South African Journal of Science, 28, 51–62.Google Scholar
  61. Goodwin, A. J. H. (1953). Method in prehistory: an introduction to the discipline of prehistoric archaeology with special reference to South African conditions (2nd ed.). Cape Town: South African Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  62. Gorenstein, S. (1965). Introduction to archaeology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  63. Gräslund, B. (1976). Relative chronology: dating methods in Scandinavian archaeology. Norwegian Archaeological Review, 9, 69–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grayson, D. K. (1983). The establishment of human antiquity. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  65. Grayson, D. K. (1984). Archaeological associations with extinct Pleistocene mammals in North America. Journal of Archaeological Science, 11, 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grayson, D. K. (2004). Monte Verde, field archaeology, and the human colonization of the Americas. In D. B. Madsen (Ed.), Entering America: northeast Asia and Beringia before the last glacial maximum (pp. 379–387). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  67. Grayson, D. K. (2006). Late Pleistocene faunal extinctions. In D. H. Ubelaker (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 3, environment, origins, and population (pp. 208–218). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  68. Grayson, D. K. (2007). Deciphering North American Pleistocene extinctions. Journal of Anthropological Research, 63, 185–213.Google Scholar
  69. Grayson, D. K., & Meltzer, D. J. (2003). A requiem for North American overkill. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 585–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Grayson, D. K., & Meltzer, D. J. (2004). North American overkill continued? Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Greene, J. C. (1959). The death of Adam: evolution and its impact on western thought. Ames: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Guidon, N., Pessis, A.-M., Parenti, F., Fontugue, M., & Guérin, C. (1996). Nature and age of the deposits in Pedra Furada, Brazil: reply to Meltzer, Adovasio and Dillehay. Antiquity, 70, 408–421.Google Scholar
  73. Hancock, J. M. (1977). The historic development of concepts of biostratigraphic correlation. In E. G. Kauffman & J. E. Hazel (Eds.), Concepts and methods of biostratigraphy (pp. 3–22). Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Haynes, C. V. (1968). The earliest Americans. Science, 166, 709–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Haynes, C. V. (1973). The Calico Site: artifacts or geofacts. Science, 181, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Haynes, G. (2007). A review of some attacks on the overkill hypothesis, with special attention to misrepresentation and double talk. Quaternary International, 169–170, 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Haynes, G., & Stanford, D. (1984). On the possible utilization of Camelops by Early Man in North America. Quaternary Research, 22, 216–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Heizer, R. F. (1949). A manual of archaeological field methods. Millbrae: National Press.Google Scholar
  79. Heizer, R. F. (Ed.). (1958). A guide to archaeological field methods (4th ed.). Palo Alto: National Press.Google Scholar
  80. Heric, T. M. (1969). Rancho La Brea: its history and fossils. Journal of the West, 8, 209–236.Google Scholar
  81. Hermann, A. (1909). Modern laboratory methods in vertebrate paleontology. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 26, 263–332.Google Scholar
  82. Hester, J. J. (1967). The agency of man in animal extinctions. In P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause (pp. 169–192). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Hester, T. R., Heizer, R. F., & Graham, J. A. (1975). Field methods in archaeology (6th ed.). Palo Alto: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  84. Hester, T. R., Shafer, H. J., & Feder, K. L. (1997). Field methods in archaeology (7th ed.). Mountain View: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  85. Hole, F., & Heizer, R. F. (1965). An introduction to prehistoric archeology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  86. Hole, F., & Heizer, R. F. (1969). An introduction to prehistoric archeology (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  87. Hole, F., & Heizer, R. F. (1973). An introduction to prehistoric archeology (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  88. Hole, F., & Heizer, R. F. (1977). Prehistoric archeology: a brief introduction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  89. Holmes, W. H. (1893a). A question of evidence. Science, 21, 135–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Holmes, W. H. (1893b). Gravel man and Palaeolithic culture: a preliminary word. Science, 21, 29–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Holmes, W. H. (1897). Primitive man in the Delaware Valley. Science, 6, 824–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hrdlicka, A. (1912). Early Man in South America. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 52. Smithsonian Institution, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  93. Isaac, G. L. (1971). The diet of early man. World Archaeology, 2, 278–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Isaac, G. L. (1981). Emergence of human behaviour patterns. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B292, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jefferson, G. T. (2001). People and the Brea: a brief history of a natural resource. In J. H. Harris (Ed.), Rancho La Brea: death trap and treasure trove (pp. 3–8). Terra 38(2).Google Scholar
  96. Jelinek, A. J. (1967). Man’s role in the extinction of Pleistocene faunas. In P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright Jr. (Eds.), Pleistocene extinctions: the search for a cause (pp. 193–200). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Johnson, R. G. (1957). Experiments on the burial of shells. Journal of Geology, 65, 527–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Johnson, R. G. (1960). Models and methods for analysis of the mode of formation of fossil assemblages. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71, 1075–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Joukowsky, M. (1980). A complete manual of field archaeology: tools and techniques of field work for archaeologists. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  100. Kelly, R. L., & Thomas, D. H. (2010). Archaeology (5th ed.). Bellmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  101. Kenyon, K. M. (1957). Beginning in archaeology (3rd ed.). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  102. Kidwell, S. M. (1986). Models for fossil concentration: paleobiologic implications. Paleobiology, 12, 6–24.Google Scholar
  103. Klindt-Jenson, O. (1975). A history of Scandinavian archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  104. Knudson, S. J. (1978). Culture in retrospect: an introduction to archaeology. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  105. Koch, P. L., & Barnosky, A. D. (2006). Late Quaternary extinctions: state of the debate. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 37, 215–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Krantz, G. S. (1970). Human activities and megafaunal extinctions. American Scientist, 58, 164–170.Google Scholar
  107. Kroeber, A. L. (1909). The archaeology of California. In F. Boas (Ed.), Putnam anniversary volume (pp. 1–42). New York: Stechert.Google Scholar
  108. Kroll, E. M., & Price, T. D. (1991). Introduction. In E. M. Kroll & T. D. Price (Eds.), The interpretation of archaeological spatial patterning (pp. 1–7). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  109. Kummel, B., & Raup, D. M. (Eds.). (1965). Handbook of paleontological techniques. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  110. Langston, W., Jr. (1948). Vertebrate paleontological field technique and its application to archaeological collecting. Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society, 19, 88–99.Google Scholar
  111. Lawrence, D. R. (1968). Taphonomy and information losses in fossil communities. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 79, 1315–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lawrence, D. R. (1971). The nature and structure of paleoecology. Journal of Paleontology, 45, 593–607.Google Scholar
  113. Lyman, R. L. (1984). Broken bones, bone expediency tools, and bone pseudotools: lessons from the blast zone around Mount St. Helens, Washington. American Antiquity, 49, 315–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lyman, R. L. (1991). Alexander W. Chase and the 19th century archaeology and ethnography of the southern Oregon and northern California coast. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, 25, 155–256.Google Scholar
  115. Lyman, R. L. (1994). Vertebrate taphonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Lyman, R. L. (2003). The influence of time averaging and space averaging on the application of foraging theory in zooarchaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 595–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lyman, R. L. (2010). American archaeology textbooks as reflections of the history of the discipline. North American Archaeologist, 31, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lyman, R. L., & O’Brien, M. J. (1999). Americanist stratigraphic excavation and the measurement of culture change. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 6, 55–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lyman, R. L., O’Brien, M. J., & Dunnell, R. C. (1997). The rise and fall of culture history. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  120. Marcus, L. F., & Berger, R. (1984). The significance of radiocarbon dates for Rancho La Brea. In P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein (Eds.), Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (pp. 159–183). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  121. McKern, W. C. (1939). The Midwestern taxonomic method as an aid to archaeological culture classification. American Antiquity, 4, 301–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McNitt, F. (1966). Richard Wetherill: Anasazi. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  123. Mead, J. I., & Meltzer, D. J. (1984). North American Late Quaternary extinctions and the radiocarbon record. In P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein (Eds.), Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution (pp. 440–450). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  124. Meighan, C. W. (1966). Archaeology: an introduction. San Francisco: Chandler.Google Scholar
  125. Meltzer, D. J. (1986). Pleistocene overkill and the associational critique. Journal of Archaeological Science, 13, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Meltzer, D. J. (1991). On “paradigms” and “paradigm bias” in controversies over human antiquity in America. In T. D. Dillehay & D. J. Meltzer (Eds.), The first Americans: search and research (pp. 13–49). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  127. Meltzer, D.J. (1995). Stones of contention. New Scientist, 146(1983), 31–35.Google Scholar
  128. Meltzer, D. J. (1997). Monte Verde and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Science, 276, 754–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Meltzer, D. J. (2009). First people in a New World: colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  130. Meltzer, D. J., & Dunnell, R. C. (1992). Introduction. In D. J. Meltzer & R. C. Dunnell (Eds.), The archaeology of William Henry Holmes (pp. vii–l). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  131. Meltzer, D. J., & Mead, J. I. (1983). The timing of Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America. Quaternary Research, 19, 130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Meltzer, D. J., & Mead, J. I. (1985). Dating Late Pleistocene extinctions: theoretical issues, analytical bias and substantive results. In J. I. Mead & D. J. Meltzer (Eds.), Man in late glacial North America (pp. 145–173). Orono: University of Maine, Center for the Study of Early Man.Google Scholar
  133. Meltzer, D. J., Adovasio, J. M., & Dillehay, T. D. (1994). On a Pleistocene human occupation at Pedra Furada, Brazil. Antiquity, 68, 695–714.Google Scholar
  134. Meltzer, D. J., Grayson, D. K., Ardila, G., Barker, A. W., Dincauze, D. F., Haynes, C. V., et al. (1997). On the Pleistocene antiquity of Monte Verde, southern Chile. American Antiquity, 62, 659–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Militello, T. (2005). Horation Nelson Rust and his contributions to the development of American archaeology. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly, 41, 1–57.Google Scholar
  136. Miller, G. J. (1971). Some new and improved methods for recovering and preparing fossils as developed on the Rancho La Brea project. Curator, 14, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Muckle, R. J. (2006). Introducing archaeology. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  138. Nelson, N. C. (1938). Prehistoric archaeology. In F. Boas (Ed.), General anthropology (pp. 146–237). Boston: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
  139. Newell, N. D. (1959). Adequacy of the fossil record. Journal of Paleontology, 33, 488–499.Google Scholar
  140. Nowlan, G. S. (1986). Paleontology: ancient and modern. Geoscience Canada, 13, 67–72.Google Scholar
  141. Olson, E. C. (1957). Size-frequency distribution in samples of extinct organisms. Journal of Geology, 65, 309–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Olson, E. C. (1966). Community evolution and the origin of mammals. Ecology, 47, 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Organ, C. L., Cooley, J. B., & Hieronymus, T. L. (2003). A non-invasive quarry mapping system. Palaios, 18, 74–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Parker, A. C. (1923). Method in archaeology. Ontario Provincial Museum Report, pp. 3–9. Ontario.Google Scholar
  145. Patterson, L. W. (1983). Criteria for determining the attributes of man-made lithics. Journal of Field Archaeology, 10, 297–307.Google Scholar
  146. Petrie, W. M. F. (1904). Methods and aims in archaeology. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  147. Pettitt, P. B., Davies, W., Gamble, C. S., & Richards, M. B. (2003). Palaeolithic radiocarbon chronology: quantifying our confidence beyond two half-lives. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 1685–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Piggott, S. (1959). Approach to archaeology. London: A & C Black.Google Scholar
  149. Potts, R., & Shipman, P. (1981). Cutmarks made by stone tools on bones from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature, 291, 577–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Price, T. D. (2007). Principles of archaeology. Boston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  151. Putnam, F. W. (1886). On methods of archaeological research in America. Johns Hopkins University Circulars 5(49):89. [Reprinted: Putnam, F. W. 1973. The selected archaeological papers of Frederic Ward Putnam, edited by S. Williams. New York: AMS Press.]Google Scholar
  152. Rainger, R. (1997). Everett C. Olson and the development of vertebrate paleoecology and taphonomy. Archives of Natural History, 24, 373–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rapp, G., Jr., & Hill, C. L. (1998). Geoarchaeology: the earth-science approach to archaeological interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Rathje, W. L., & Schiffer, M. B. (1982). Archaeology. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  155. Raup, D. M., & Stanley, S. M. (1971). Principles of paleontology. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  156. Raup, D. M., & Stanley, S. M. (1978). Principles of paleontology (2nd ed.). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  157. Renfrew, C., & Bahn, P. (1991). Archaeology: theories, methods, and practice. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  158. Renfrew, C., & Bahn, P. (1996). Archaeology: theories, methods, and practice (2nd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  159. Renfrew, C., & Bahn, P. (2004). Archaeology: theories, methods, and practice (4th ed.). London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  160. Rogers, R. R. (1994). Collecting taphonomic data from vertebrate localities. In P. Leiggi & P. May (Eds.), Vertebrate paleontological techniques, vol. 1 (pp. 47–58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Roskams, S. (2001). Excavation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Rouse, I. (1972). Introduction to prehistory: a systematic approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  163. Rowe, J. H. (1962). Worsaae’s law and the use of grave lots for archaeological dating. American Antiquity, 28, 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rudwick, M. (1996). Minerals, strata and fossils. In N. Jardine, J. A. Secord, & E. C. Spary (Eds.), Cultures of natural history (pp. 265–286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Schiffer, M. B. (1972). Archaeological context and systemic context. American Antiquity, 37, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schiffer, M. B. (1976). Behavioral archeology. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  167. Schopf, T. J. M. (Ed.). (1972). Models in paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper.Google Scholar
  168. Semonin, P. (2000). American monster: how the nation’s first prehistoric creature became a symbol of national identity. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Sepkoski, D. (2005). Stephen Jay Gould, Jack Sepkoski, and the ‘quantitative revolution’ in American paleobiology. Journal of the History of Biology, 38, 209–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sepkoski, D. (2009). The emergence of paleobiology. In D. Sepkoski & M. Ruse (Eds.), The paleobiological revolution: essays on the growth of modern paleobiology (pp. 15–42). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  171. Sharer, R. J., & Ashmore, W. (1979). Fundamentals of archaeology. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings.Google Scholar
  172. Sharer, R. J., & Ashmore, W. (1987). Archaeology: discovering our past. Mountain View: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  173. Sharer, R. J., & Ashmore, W. (1993). Archaeology: discovering our past (2nd ed.). Mountain View: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  174. Sharer, R. J., & Ashmore, W. (2003). Archaeology: discovering our past (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  175. Shaw, C. A. (1982). Techniques used in excavation, preparation, and curation of fossils from Rancho La Brea. Curator, 25, 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Simpson, G. G. (1944). Tempo and mode in evolution. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  177. Simpson, G. G. (1961). Some problems in vertebrate paleontology. Science, 133, 1679–1689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Smith, J. W. (1976). Foundations of archaeology. Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press.Google Scholar
  179. Snead, J. E. (1999). Science, commerce, and control: patronage and the develoment of anthropological archaeology in the Americas. American Anthropologist, 101, 256–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Snead, J. E. (2003). Wissler’s gyroscope: contexts for the chronological revolution. In J. Truncer (Ed.), Picking the lock of time: developing chronology in American archaeology (pp. 40–63). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  181. Spencer, L. M., Van Valkenburgh, B., & Harris, J. M. (2003). Taphonomic analysis of large mammals recovered from the Pleistocene Rancho La Brea tar seeps. Paleobiology, 29, 561–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Staeck, J. P. (2002). Back to the earth: an introduction to archaeology. Mountain View: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  183. Stein, J. K. (2008). Exploring the historical foundations and interpretive potential of provenience. In A. P. Sullivan III (Ed.), Archaeological concepts for the study of the cultural past (pp. 108–124). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  184. Steward, J. H., & Setzler, F. B. (1938). Function and configuration in archaeology. American Antiquity, 4, 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Stock, C. (1929). A census of the Pleistocene mammals of Rancho La Brea, based on collections of the Los Angeles museums. Journal of Mammalogy, 10, 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Surovell, T. A. (2008). Extinctions of big game. In D. M. Pearsall (Ed.), Encyclopedia of archaeology (pp. 1365–1374). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Surovell, T. A., & Waguespack, N. M. (2009). Human prey choice in the Late Pleistocene and its relation to megafaunal extinction. In G. Haynes (Ed.), American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene (pp. 77–105). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Surovell, T. A., Waguespack, N. M., & Brantingham, P. J. (2005). Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 6231–6236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sutton, M. Q., & Yohe, R. M., III. (2003). Archaeology: the science of the human past. Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  190. Sutton, M. Q., & Yohe, R. M., III. (2008). Archaeology: the science of the human past (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  191. Taylor, W. W. (1948). A study of archeology. American Anthropological Association Memoir 69. Menasha: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  192. Thomas, D. H. (1979). Archaeology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  193. Thomas, D. H. (1989). Archaeology (2nd ed.). Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  194. Thomas, D. H. (1998). Archaeology (3rd ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  195. Thomas, D. H., & Kelly, R. L. (2006). Archaeology (4th ed.). Bellmont: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  196. Trigger, B. G. (1989). A history of archaeological thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  197. Voorhies, M. R. (1969). Taphonomy and population dynamics of an Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna, Knox County, Nebraska. Contributions to Geology Special Paper No. 1. Laramie: University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  198. Voorhies, M. R. (1970). Sampling difficulties in reconstructing Late Tertiary mammalian communities. In E. L. Yochelson (Ed.), Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention (pp. 454–468). Lawrence: Allen Press.Google Scholar
  199. Wandsnider, L. (1996). Describing and comparing archaeological spatial structures. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 3, 319–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Waterbolk, H. T. (1971). Working with radiocarbon dates. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 37, 15–33.Google Scholar
  201. Webster, D. L., Evans, S. T., & Sanders, W. T. (1993). Out of the past: an introduction to archaeology. Mountain View: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  202. Wheeler, S. M. (1938). Recording cave data. American Antiquity, 4, 48–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wheeler, Sir M. (1956 [1954]). Archaeology from the earth. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  204. White, T. E. (1953). Collecting osteological material, or how to get a block plastered. Plains Archaeological Conference News Letter, 6, 54–58.Google Scholar
  205. Wiley, G.R. (1936). A survey of methods and problems in archaeological excavation, with special reference to the Southwest. Master’s thesis, University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  206. Willey, G. R. (1984). Archaeological retrospect 6. Antiquity, 58, 5–14.Google Scholar
  207. Willey, G. R., & Sabloff, J. A. (1993). A history of American archaeology (3rd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  208. Wissler, C., Butler, A. W., Dixon, R. B., Hodge, F. W., & Laufer, B. (1923). State Archaeological surveys: suggestions in method and technique. Washington: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  209. Wolverton, S., Lyman, R. L., Kennedy, J. H., & La Point, T. W. (2009). The terminal Pleistocene extinctions in North America, hypermorphic evolution, and the dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Ethnobiology, 29, 28–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Woodward, G. D., & Marcus, L. F. (1973). Rancho La Brea fossil deposits: a re-evaluation from stratigraphic and geological evidence. Journal of Palentology, 47, 54–69.Google Scholar
  211. Woolley, Sir L. (1937 [1930]). Digging up the past. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  212. Worsaae, J. J. A. (1849 [1843 Danish edition]). The primeval antiquities of Denmark. London: John Henry Parker.Google Scholar
  213. Youngquist, W. (1967). Fossil systematics. In C. Teichert & E. L. Yochelson (Eds.), Essays in paleontology and stratigraphy (pp. 57–62). Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, 107 Swallow HallUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations