Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 161–205 | Cite as

‘Rock-art’, ‘Animism’ and Two-way Thinking: Towards a Complementary Epistemology in the Understanding of Material Culture and ‘Rock-art’ of Hunting and Gathering People

  • Martin PorrEmail author
  • Hannah Rachel Bell
Article

Abstract

In recent years, the concept of ‘animism’ has gained considerable popularity among archaeologists in exploring non-Western expressions of material culture. This development has also influenced recent academic approaches towards the study of ‘rock-art’ of people living as hunter and gatherers or in a hunting and gathering tradition. We argue here that attempts in this direction so far are generally compromised, because they fail to take Indigenous philosophies and intellectual contributions seriously. Any concern with Indigenous material expressions, including so-called rock-art, has to involve a critical re-assessment of academic discourse itself and a challenge to the primacy of Western scientific and literary, academic methodologies. With reference to the ‘rock-art’ and the world-view of the Ngarinyin (Kimberley, Northwest Australia), we present some preliminary thoughts for the development of an alternative interpretative framework, while offering a (much needed) legitimacy to another more balanced epistemology.

Keywords

Rock-art Australia Animism Ontologies Phenomenology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

First and foremost we acknowledge the Ngarinyin, Worrora and Wanumbal knowledge-holders and keepers of the living Wanjina-Wungurr rock art tradition who have shared their knowledge and images with the world. Hannah Rachel Bell thanks her friends and teachers, senior lawmen Bungal Mowaljarlai OAM (dec), Laurie Gawanulli (dec), Paddy Wamma (dec), Laurie Utemorra (dec), Wilfred Goonack (dec), Ray Goonack (dec), Nyandat Tataya (dec), Willy Bunjuk (dec), Paddy Neowarra, Scotty Martin, Paul Chapman, Jimmy Maline and senior law women Daisy Utemorra (dec) Tjurkai (dec), Pansy Nulgit, Maisie Jordpa, Dorothy Spider, Lucy Ward, Biddy Dale, Janet Ubaguma, Joy Molumbun, Gilgie and Guddu, and all their children for welcoming her into their families and lives and informed her work over the past 40 years.

This paper has considerably profited from a UWA Institute of Advanced Studies workshop on ‘Gwion Gwion rock-art of the Kimberley: Past, present and future’, which was held at the University of Western Australia on October 14-15, 2010. Professor Alan Robson, Vice Chancellor, The University of Western Australia, the Institute of Advanced Studies at The University of Western Australia, the Department of Indigenous Affairs, Government of Western Australia, and Eureka Archaeological Research and Consulting financially supported the workshop. Sections of this paper were written in Derby during a research project conducted by M. Porr, which was funded by the Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS project grant G2009/7440). We also would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

References

  1. Alberti, B., & Bray, T. L. (2009). Animating archaeology: Of subjects, objects and alternative ontologies. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti, B., & Marshall, Y. (2009). Animating archaeology: Local theories and conceptually open-ended methodologies. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 344–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt, W. (1964). The Australian evolution of the Wandjinas from rainclouds. Oceania, 34(3), 161–169.Google Scholar
  4. Balme, J. (2000). Excavation revealing 40,000 years of occupation at Mimbi Caves, south central Kimberley, Western Australia. Australian Archaeology, 51, 1–5.Google Scholar
  5. Barnard, A. (Ed.). (2004). Hunter–gatherers in history, archaeology and anthropology. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  6. Barton, C. M., Clark, G., & Cohen, A. (1994). Art as information: Explaining Upper Palaeolithic art in Western Europe. World Archaeology, 26, 186–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, H. R. (2009). Storymen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bettinger, R. L. (1991). Hunter–gatherers: Archaeological and evolutionary theory. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  9. Binford, L. R. (2001). Constructing frames of reference: An analytical method for archaeological theory building using hunter–gatherer and environmental data sets. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bird-David, N. (1990). The giving environment: Another perspective on the economic systems of gatherer-hunters. Current Anthropology, 31(2), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bird-David, N. (1992a). Beyond ‘The Hunting and Gathering Mode of Subsistence’: Culture-sensitive observations on the Nayaka and other modern hunter–gatherers. Man (NS), 27, 19–44.Google Scholar
  12. Bird-David, N. (1992b). Beyond ‘The Original Affluent Society’: A culturalist reformulation. Current Anthropology, 33(1), 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bird-David, N. (1999). Animism revisited. Personhood, environment and relational epistemology. Current Anthropology, 40(Supplement), S67–S91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blundell, V. (2003). The art of country: Aesthetics, place, and Aboriginal identity in north-west Australia. In D. Trigger & G. Griffiths (Eds.), Disputed territories: Land, culture and identity in settler societies (pp. 155–185). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Blundell, V., & Layton, R. (1978). Marriage, myth and models of exchange in the West Kimberleys. Mankind, 11, 231–245.Google Scholar
  16. Blundell, V., & Woolagoodja, D. (2005). Keeping the Wanjinas fresh: Sam Woolagoodja and the enduring power of Lalai. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bradshaw, J. (1892). Notes on a trip to Prince Regent’s River. Proceedings of the Geographical Socity of Australasia, 9, 90–102.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, L. A., & Walker, W. H. (2008). Prologue: Archaeology, animism and non-human agents. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 15, 297–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carbaugh, D. (1990). Toward a perspective on cultural communication and intercultural contact. Semiotica, 80(1/2), 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carbaugh, D. (2007). Cultural discourse analysis: Communication practices and intercultural encounters. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 36(3), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cartmill, M. (1993). A view to a death in the morning. Hunting and nature through history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Castañeda, Q. E., & Matthews, C. N. (Eds.). (2008). Ethnographic archaeologies. Reflections on stakeholders and archaeological practices. Lanham: Altamira.Google Scholar
  23. Clifford, J., & Marcus, G. E. (Eds.). (1986). Writing culture. The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Clottes, J. (1998). The three ‘Cs’: Fresh avenues towards European Palaeolithic art. In C. Chippindale & P. Taçon (Eds.), The archaeology of rock-art (pp. 112–129). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Conkey, M. W. (1989). The structural analysis of Palaeolithic art. In C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (Ed.), Archaeological thought in America (pp. 135–154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Conkey, M. W. (1997). Mobilizing ideologies: Palaeolithic ‘art’, gender trouble, and thinking about alternative. In L. D. Hager (Ed.), Women in human evolution (pp. 172–207). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Conkey, M. W., Soffer, O., Stratmann, D., & Jablonski, N. G. (Eds.). (1997). Beyond art: Pleistocene image and symbol. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  28. Crawford, I. (1968). The art of the Wandjina. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. DeMarrais, E., Gosden, C., & Renfrew, C. (Eds.). (2004). Rethinking materiality: The engagement of mind with the material world. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  30. Donaldson, M. (2007). Introduction and overview of Kimberley rock art. In M. Donaldson & K. Kenneally (Eds.), Rock art of the Kimberley (pp. 1–24). Perth: Kimberley Society.Google Scholar
  31. Doring, J. (Ed.). (2000). Gwion Gwion. Secret and sacred pathways of the Ngarinyin Aboriginal People of Australia. Köln: Könemann.Google Scholar
  32. Dowson, T. A. (2009). Re-animating hunter–gatherer rock-art research. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 378–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dowson, T. A., & Porr, M. (2001). Special objects—special creatures. Shamanistic imagery and the Aurignacian art of Southwest Germany. In N. Price (Ed.), The archaeology of Shamanism (pp. 165–177). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Elkin, A. P. (1948). Grey’s northern Kimberley cave-paintings refound. Oceania, 19, 1–15.Google Scholar
  35. Gamble, C. S. (1991). The social context for European Paleolithic art. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 57(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  36. Gamble, C. S., & Porr, M. (2005). From empty spaces to lived lives: Exploring the individual in the Palaeolithic. In C. S. Gamble & M. Porr (Eds.), The hominid individual in context: Archaeological investigations of lower and middle palaeolithic landscapes, locales and artefacts (pp. 1–12). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  38. Groleau, A. B. (2009). Special finds: Locating animism in the archaeological record. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guthrie, S. (1993). Faces in the clouds: A new theory of religion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Haber, A. F. (2009). Animism, relatedness, life: Post-Western perspectives. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halloway, A. I. (1960). Ojibwa ontology, behavior and world view. In S. Diamond (Ed.), Culture in history: Essays in honor of Paul Radin (pp. 19–52). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Harris, H. (2005). Indigenous worldviews and ways of knowing as theoretical and methodological foundations for archaeological research. In C. Smith & H. M. Wobst (Eds.), Indigenous archaeologies. Decolonizing theory and practice (pp. 33–41). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Helvenston, P. A., & Hodgson, D. (2010). The neuropsychology of ‘Animism’: Implications for understanding rock art. Rock Art Research, 27(1), 61–94.Google Scholar
  44. Hicks, D., & Beaudry, M. C. (Eds.). (2010). The Oxford handbook of material culture studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Holdrege, C. (2005). Doing Goethean science. Janus Head, 8(1), 27–52.Google Scholar
  46. Ingold, T. (1992). Culture and the perception of the environment. In E. Croll & D. Parkin (Eds.), Bush base—forest farm: Culture, environment, and development (pp. 39–56). London: Rourtledge.Google Scholar
  47. Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment. Essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ingold, T. (2004). Beyond biology and culture. The meaning of evolution in a relational world. Social Anthropology, 12(2), 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ingold, T. (2006a). Rethinking the animate, re-animating thought. Ethnos, 71(1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ingold, T. (2006b). Walking the plank: meditations on a process of skill. In J. R. Dakers (Ed.), Defining technological literacy: Towards an epistemological framework (pp. 65–80). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Ingold, T. (2007a). Lines. A brief history. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Ingold, T. (2007b). Materials against materiality. Archaeological Dialogues, 14(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ingold, T. (2010a). The textility of making. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34, 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ingold, T. (2010b). Ways of mind-walking: Reading, writing, painting. Visual Studies, 25(1), 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. James, A., Hockey, J., & Dawson, A. (Eds.). (1997). After writing culture. Epistemology and praxis in contemporary anthropology (Vol. 34). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Jochim, M. A. (1983). Palaeolithic cave art in ecological perspective. In G. Bailey (Ed.), Hunter–gatherer economy in prehistory (pp. 212–219). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kelly, R. L. (1995). The foraging spectrum. Diversity in hunter–gatherer lifeways. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  58. Knappett, C. (2006). Beyond skin: Layering and networking in art and archaeology. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 16(2), 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Knappett, C., & Malafouris, L. (Eds.). (2008). Material agency. Towards a non-anthropocentric approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Kuper, A. (1988). The invention of primitive society. Transformations of an illusion. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Latour, B. (1991). Nous n’avons jamais été modernes. Essai d’anthropologie symétrique. Paris: Éditions La Découverte.Google Scholar
  62. Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Latour, B. (1999). Pandora’s hope: Essays on the reality of science studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor–network–theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Latour, B. (2009). Perspectivism: ‘Type’ or ‘bomb’? Anthropology Today, 25(2), 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Layton, R. (1985). The cultural context of hunter–gatherer rock art. Man (N.S.), 20(3), 434–453.Google Scholar
  67. Layton, R. (1992). Australian rock art: A new synthesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Lewis-Williams, J. D. (2004). Neuropsychology and Upper Palaeolithic art: Observations on the progress of altered states of consciousness. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 14(1), 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis-Williams, J. D. (2010). Conceiving God: The cognitive origin and evolution of religion. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  70. Lewis-Williams, J. D., & Dowson, T. A. (1988). The signs of all times: Entoptic phenomena in Upper Palaeolithic art. Current Anthropology, 29(2), 201–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis-Williams, J. D., & Pearce, D. (2002). Inside the Neolithic mind: Consciousness, cosmos and the realm of the Gods. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  72. Lewis, D. (1997). ‘Bradshaws’: The view from Arnhem Land. Australian Archaeology, 44, 1–16.Google Scholar
  73. Manderson, D. (2008). Desert island disks: Ten reveries on inter-disciplinary pedagogy in law. Public Space: The Journal of Law and Social Justice, 2, 1–19.Google Scholar
  74. Marcus, G. E., & Fischer, M. M. J. (Eds.). (1986). Anthropology as cultural critique. An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. McNiven, I. J., & Russell, L. (1997). ‘Strange paintings’ and ‘mystery races’: Kimberley rock-art, diffusionism and colonialist constructions of Australia’s past. Antiquity, 71, 801–809.Google Scholar
  76. Mills, B. J., & Ferguson, T. J. (2008). Animate objects: Shell trumpets and ritual networks in the greater southwest. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 15, 338–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mithen, S. (1991). Ecological interpretations of Palaeolithic art. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 57(1), 103–114.Google Scholar
  78. Morphy, H. (1991). Ancestral connections: Art and an Aboriginal system of knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Morris, C. F. (2007). A dialogical encounter with an Indigenous jurisprudence. Griffith University, Socio-Legal Research Centre, Griffith Law School.Google Scholar
  80. Morwood, M. J. (2002). Visions from the past: The archaeology of Australian aboriginal rock art. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  81. Morwood, M. J., Walsh, G. L., & Watchman, A. L. (2010). AMS radiocarbon ages for beeswax and charcoal pigments in North Kimberley rock art. Rock Art Research, 27(1), 3–8.Google Scholar
  82. Mowaljarlai, D., & Malnic, J. (1993). Yorro Yorro—Everything standing up alive. Spirit of the Kimberley. Broome: Magabala Books Aboriginal Corporation.Google Scholar
  83. Mowaljarlai, D., Vinnicombe, P., Ward, G. K., & Chippindale, C. (1988). Repainting of images on rock in Australia and the maintenance of Aboriginal culture. Antiquity, 67, 690–696.Google Scholar
  84. Nakata, M. (1998). Anthropological texts and Indigenous standpoints. Journal of Aboriginal Studies, 2, 3–15.Google Scholar
  85. Nakata, M. (2002). Indigenous knowledge and the cultural interface: Underlying issues at the intersection of knowledge and information systems. IFLA Journal, 28(5/6), 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nicholas, G. P., & Andrews, T. D. (Eds.). (1997). At a crossroads: Archaeology and first peoples in Canada. Burnaby: Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
  87. O’Connor, S., & Fankhauser, B. (2001). One step closer: An ochre covered rock from Carpenter’s Gap Shelter 1, Kimberley region, Western Australia. In A. Anderson, I. Lilley, & S. O’Connor (Eds.), Histories of old ages: Essays in honour of rhys jones (pp. 287–300). Canberra: The Australian National University.Google Scholar
  88. Ouzman, S. (2005). Silencing and sharing southern African Indigenous and embedded knowledge. In C. Smith & H. M. Wobst (Eds.), Indigenous archaeologies: decolonizing theory and practice (pp. 208–225). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Panter-Brick, C., Layton, R., & Rowley-Conwy, P. (Eds.). (2001). Hunter–gatherers. An interdisciplinary perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Petri, H. (1954). Sterbende Welt in Nordwest Australien. Braunschweig: Albert Limbach.Google Scholar
  91. Porr, M. (2001). Between Nyae Nyae and Anaktuvuk—Some remarks on the use of anthropology in Palaeolithic archaeology. Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift, 42, 159–173.Google Scholar
  92. Porr, M. (2010a). The Hohle Fels ‘Venus’: Some remarks on animals, humans and metaphorical relationships in Early Upper Palaeolithic art. Rock Art Research, 27(2), 147–159.Google Scholar
  93. Porr, M. (2010b). Palaeolithic art as cultural memory. A case study of the Aurignacian art of Southwest Germany. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 20(1), 87–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Redmond, A. (2002). ‘Alien abductions’, Kimberley Aboriginal rock-paintings, and the speculation about human origins: On some investments in cultural tourism in the northern Kimberley. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2002(2), 54–64.Google Scholar
  95. Redmond, A. (2005). Strange relatives: Mutualities and dependencies between Aborigines and pastoralists in the Northern Kimberley. Oceania, 75(3), 234–246.Google Scholar
  96. Renfrew, C., Gosden, C., & DeMarrais, E. (Eds.). (2004). Substance, memory, display. Archaeology and art. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Studies.Google Scholar
  97. Roberts, R., Walsh, G. L., Murray, A., Olley, J., Jones, R., Morwood, M. J., et al. (1997). Luminescence dating of rock art and past environments using mud-wasp nests in northern Australia. Nature, 387, 637–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ryan, J., & Akerman, K. (1993). Shadows of Wandjina: Figurative art of the Northwest and Central Kimberley. In J. Ryan & K. Akerman (Eds.), Images of power: Aboriginal art of the Kimberley (pp. 10–19). Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria.Google Scholar
  99. Sauvet, G., Layton, R., Lenssen-Erz, T., Taçon, P., & Wlodarczyk, A. (2009). Thinking with animals in Upper Palaeolithic rock art. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schmidlin, M. (2009). A changing of the tide? Gwion Gwion rock-art research at the crossroads. Crawley: The University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  101. Shotter, J. (2003). Cartesian change, chiasmic change: The power of living expression. Janus Head, 6(1), 6–29.Google Scholar
  102. Smith, C. (2006). The appropriation of Indigenous images: A review essay. Rock Art Research, 23(2), 275–277.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, C., & Wobst, H. M. (Eds.). (2005). Indigenous archaeologies. Decolonizing theory and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. Strathern, M. (1988). The gender of the gift: Problems with women and problems with society in Melansia. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  105. Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  106. Utemara, D., & Vinnicombe, P. (1992). North-western Kimberley belief systems. In M. J. Morwood & D. R. Hobbs (Eds.), Rock art and ethnography (Vol. 5). Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Association.Google Scholar
  107. Vinnicombe, P. (1992). Kimberley ideology and the maintenance of sites. In G. K. Ward (Ed.), Retouch: Maintenance and conversation of aboriginal rock imagery (pp. 10–11). Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association.Google Scholar
  108. Vinnicombe, P., & Mowaljarlai, D. (1995). That rock is a cloud: Concepts associated with rock images in the Kimberley region of Australia. In K. Helskog & B. Olsen (Eds.), Perceiving rock art: Social and political perspectives (pp. 228–246). Oslo: Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning.Google Scholar
  109. von Däniken, E. (1969). Chariots of the Gods? Unresolved mysteries of the past. London: Souvenier.Google Scholar
  110. Wahl, D. C. (2005). “Zarte Empirie”: Goethean science as a way of knowing. Janus Head, 8(1), 58–76.Google Scholar
  111. Wallis, R. J. (2009). Re-enchanting rock art landscapes: Animic ontologies, nonhuman agency and rhizomic personhood. Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeological Consciousness and Culture, 2, 47–70.Google Scholar
  112. Walsh, G. L. (1992). Rock art retouch: Can a claim of Aboriginal descent establish curation rights over humanity’s cultural heritage? In M. J. Morwood & D. R. Hobbs (Eds.), Rock art and ethnography (pp. 47–59). Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Association.Google Scholar
  113. Walsh, G. L. (1994). Bradshaws: Ancient rock paintings of Northwest Australia. Geneva: Edition Limitée.Google Scholar
  114. Walsh, G. L. (2000). Bradshaw art of the Kimberley. Toowong: Takarakka Nowan Kas.Google Scholar
  115. Ward, R. (2003). The Australian legend. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Watchman, A. L., Walsh, G. L., Morwood, M. J., & Tuniz, C. (1997). AMS radiocarbon dating age estimates for early rock paintings in the Kimberley, NW Australia: Preliminary results. Rock Art Research, 14, 18–26.Google Scholar
  117. Watkins, J. (2005). The politics of American archaeology: cultural resources, cultural affiliation and Kennewick. In C. Smith & H. M. Wobst (Eds.), Indigenous archaeologies: Decolonizing theory and practice (pp. 189–203). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  118. Wilson, I. (2006). Lost world of the Kimberley: Extraordinary glimpses of Australia’s Ice Age ancestors. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  119. Zedeño, M. N. (2008). Bundled worlds: The roles and interactions of complex objects from the North American Plains. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 15, 362–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zedeño, M. N. (2009). Animating by association: Index objects and relational taxonomies. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 19(3), 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zimmerman, L. (2001). Usurping American Indian voice. In T. Bray (Ed.), The future of the past: Archaeologists, Native Americans, and repatriation (pp. 169–184). New York: Garland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ngarinyin Bush University & Co-cultural EducationBallaratAustralia
  2. 2.Archaeology/Centre for Rock-Art Studies, School of Social and Cultural StudiesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations