The VACTERL association: mosaic mitotic aneuploidy as a cause and a model
While mitotic errors commonly cause aneuploid clones soon after conception, the embryos often normalize as clones are rapidly eliminated. Although generally considered benign, evidence suggests clone elimination as the primary cause of the vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal, and limb (VACTERL) association of anomalies, and possibly other adverse outcomes as well. Here, clone elimination-related development disruption at specific locations is used as the basis of a comprehensive theoretical VACTERL association model that also elucidates mitotic mosaic aneuploidy effects. For the association, the model explains random temporal and spatial origins during a limited time frame and overlapping clusters of component anomalies. It supports early developmental effects involving the stage of determination, where the position in a specific morphogen field controls what a cell will become and where it will be located. Developmental properties related to determination also create specific vulnerabilities to the midline and distal defects, the latter explaining exclusively radial and tibial defects with duplications and deficiencies. The model also supports isolated anomalies as part of the association and, for mosaic mitotic aneuploidy, indicates that clone elimination nears completion at the time of lower limb determination. Although mosaic clone elimination may cause other defects, occurrences in different developmental fields separate them from VACTERL anomalies. Clone elimination may also be related to risks for a single umbilical artery and for non-structural adverse pregnancy outcomes such as losses, prematurity, and growth delays, while a paucity of clone lethality in non-humans explains the rarity of the association and of single umbilical arteries in animals.
KeywordsCell fate Determination Mitotic aneuploidy Mosaicism VACTERL association
I wish to thank Dr. Stephanie Bishop of the South University School of Pharmacy for her time, effort, and thoughtfulness in reviewing the ms., which improved it immensely.
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Conflict of interest
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.
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