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PCSK9 and Lp(a) levels of children born after assisted reproduction technologies

  • Charalambos VlachopoulosEmail author
  • Ioanna Kosteria
  • Sophia Sakka
  • Alexandra Gkourogianni
  • Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios
  • Iosif Koutagiar
  • Ioannis Skoumas
  • Antigoni Miliou
  • Ioannis Papassotiriou
  • Vasiliki Gardikioti
  • Dimitrios Loutradis
  • George Chrousos
  • Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
  • Dimitrios Tousoulis
Assisted Reproduction Technologies
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. To investigate PCSK9 and Lp(a) levels of children born after assisted reproduction technologies (ART) compared with naturally conceived (NC) controls.

Methods

In this exposure-matched cohort study, 73 racial-, sex-, and age-matched children (mean age 98 ± 35 months) of ART (intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI] n = 33, classic in vitro fertilization [IVF] n = 40) and 73 NC children were assessed. Blood lipid profile, including PCSK9 and Lp(a) levels, was measured. Children were grouped according to age (< 8 years, 8–10 years, ≥ 10 years).

Results

In the overall population, PCSK9 levels were related to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and systolic blood pressure, while Lp(a) levels were related to age, apolipoprotein-B, birth weight, height, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin resistance, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. No significant differences were observed regarding lipid biomarkers between ART and NC children. However, a significant interaction was found between age groups and conception method (p < 0.001) showing that PCSK9 levels increase with age in ART children, while they decline with age in NC offspring. IVF children showed higher levels of adjusted mean Lp(a) than ICSI (13.5 vs. 6.8 mg/dl, p = 0.010) and NC children (12.3 vs. 8.3 mg/dl, p = 0.048).

Conclusions

We show that PCSK9 levels increase with age in ART children, indicating a gradual deterioration of lipidemic profile that could lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, our results indicate that ART method may be of importance given that classic IVF is associated with higher levels of Lp(a).

Keywords

PCSK9 In vitro fertilization Assisted reproduction technologies Lipoprotein (a) Cardiovascular risk Age 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

All children were included only after informed written consent was obtained from their parents or guardians. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee and the Ethics Committee of the “Aghia Sophia” Children’s Hospital. The procedures followed were according to institutional guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.

Supplementary material

10815_2019_1474_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (338 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 337 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charalambos Vlachopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ioanna Kosteria
  • Sophia Sakka
  • Alexandra Gkourogianni
  • Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios
    • 1
  • Iosif Koutagiar
    • 1
  • Ioannis Skoumas
    • 1
  • Antigoni Miliou
    • 1
  • Ioannis Papassotiriou
    • 3
  • Vasiliki Gardikioti
    • 1
  • Dimitrios Loutradis
    • 4
  • George Chrousos
    • 2
  • Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
    • 2
  • Dimitrios Tousoulis
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Department of Cardiology, Hypertension and Cardiometabolic Syndrome UnitNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Hippokrateion HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.1st Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and MetabolismNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Agia Sophia” Children’s HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Biochemistry“Aghia Sophia” Children’s HospitalAthensGreece
  4. 4.1st Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsNational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Sophia Children’s HospitalAthensGreece

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