Extracellular vesicle mediated embryo-endometrial cross talk during implantation and in pregnancy
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Extracellular vesicles are lipoproteinaceous membrane-enclosed nanometer-sized structures produced by cells and are thought to mediate cellular communications. Loaded with a specific set of miRNA and protein depending on their tissue of origin, these extracellular vesicles modulate diverse set of biological processes in their target tissues. In recent years, data has gathered on the roles of extracellular vesicles in embryo implantation and pregnancy. Embryo, oviduct, endometrial epithelium and stroma/decidua derived vesicles interact with trophoblast cells and promote their growth and differentiation to aid in embryo implantation. The placental vesicles are detected in maternal circulation that aids in feto-maternal immune tolerance, their levels vary in women with pregnancy-related complications like preeclampsia. Beyond the host, the microbes in the genital tract are also reported to produce extracellular vesicles which are thought to be responsible for inflammation and preterm births. This review focuses on the extracellular vesicular trafficking involved in success of pregnancy.
KeywordsExtracellular vesicles Exosomes Embryo Implantation Pregnancy Cross talk Infection
The manuscript bears the NIRRH ID:REV/652/07-2017. DM lab and is supported by grants from the Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. NK is a recipient of the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology & Environment Post-Doctoral Fellowship.
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