Genetic evaluation of patients with non-syndromic male infertility
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This review provides an update on the genetics of male infertility with emphasis on the current state of research, the genetic disorders that can lead to non-syndromic male infertility, and the genetic tests available for patients.
A comprehensive review of the scientific literature referenced in PubMed was conducted using keywords related to male infertility and genetics. The search included articles with English abstracts appearing online after 2000.
Mutations in 31 distinct genes have been identified as a cause of non-syndromic human male infertility, and the number is increasing constantly. Screening gene panels by high-throughput sequencing can be offered to patients in order to identify genes involved in various forms of human non-syndromic infertility. We propose a workflow for genetic tests which takes into account semen alterations.
The identification and characterization of the genetic basis of male infertility have broad implications not only for understanding the cause of infertility but also in determining the prognosis, selection of treatment options, and management of couples. Genetic diagnosis is essential for the success of ART techniques and for preserving future fertility as well as the prognosis for testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and adopted therapeutics.
KeywordsMale infertility Non-syndromic Gene panel Whole exome sequencing Genetics
We thank Robert Drillien for critical reading of the manuscript.
The study was funded by Fondation Maladies Rares (“High-throughput sequencing and rare diseases”) and l’Agence de BioMédecine (“AMP, diagnostic prénatal et diagnostic génétique”).
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