Advertisement

Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 1219–1225 | Cite as

Compensating human subjects providing oocytes for stem cell research: 9-year experience and outcomes

  • L. Zakarin Safier
  • A. Gumer
  • M. Kline
  • D. Egli
  • M. V. Sauer
Assisted Reproduction Technologies

Abstract

Purpose

Human oocytes are arguably one of the most important cell types in humans, yet they are one of the least investigated cells. Because oocytes are limited in number, the use of high-quality oocytes is almost entirely in reproduction. Furthermore, regulatory hurdles for research on gametes and regulations on funding related to research on gametes present significant obstacles to research and the advancement of reproductive treatments. Here we report the outcomes of the largest compensated oocyte donation program for research in the USA to date, and probably worldwide.

Methods

Women who participated in oocyte donation for research between 2008 and 2017 were contacted in a phone interview and completed a standardized questionnaire.

Results

Of 114 participants, 98 oocyte donors completed donation, donating 1787 mature MII oocytes and a total of 86 skin biopsies. Complication rate, including minor complications, of oocyte donation was 8/98, or 8.1%, for which two involved follow-up. Fifty-seven donors answered questions about their experience. Participants were incentivized primarily by money and a desire to help others and reported an overall favorable experience. Most, but not all, human subjects recalled that they had donated for research, and approximately half recalled that their oocytes were being used specifically for stem cell research.

Conclusions

Compensated oocyte donation provides a reliable path to obtaining high-quality oocytes for research and is reviewed favorably by oocyte donors. The continuation of programs that offer compensation for oocyte donation is invaluable to continued progress and advancements in stem cell research and human embryology, and for the advancement of novel reproductive treatments.

Keywords

Oocyte donation Stem cells Nuclear transfer Mitochondrial replacement Survey 

Notes

Acknowledgments

L. Z. S. was supported by a clinical fellowship in reproductive endocrinology and infertility. DE is a NYSCF-Robertson Investigator. We thank Robin Goland for help with the IRB protocol.

Compliance with ethical standards

Oocyte donation for research skin biopsy donation, and conducting this survey was approved by the Columbia University IRB and filed under protocol AAAI1347.

References

  1. 1.
    2008 Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation: a Practice Committee report. Fertility and sterility 90, S30–44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Board, E.S.S.C. Statement of the Empire State Stem Cell Board on the Compensation of Oocyte Donors (NY.Gov).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carson SA, Eschenbach DA, Lomax G, Rice VM, Sauer MV, Taylor RN. Proposed oocyte donation guidelines for stem cell research. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2503–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chia G, Agudo J, Treff N, Sauer MV, Billing D, Brown BD, et al. Genomic instability during reprogramming by nuclear transfer is DNA replication dependent. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:282–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chia G, Egli D. Connecting the cell cycle with cellular identity. Cell Reprogram. 2013;15:356–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Congress, t. H.R.2880—Balanced Budget Downpayment Act. In: I; 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Egli D, Chen AE, Saphier G, Powers D, Alper M, Katz K, et al. Impracticality of egg donor recruitment in the absence of compensation. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:293–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ethics, A.C.o. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 347, November 2006: Using preimplantation embryos for research. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:1305–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harmon K. For sale: human eggs become a research commodity. In Scientific American. 2009.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hiltzik M. Should we pay women to donate their eggs for research? No, and here’s why. In Los Angeles Times. 2016.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hynes RO, Moreno JD, Price Foley E, Fost N, Horvitz HR, Imbrescia M, et al. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hyslop LA, Blakeley P, Craven L, Richardson J, Fogarty NM, Fragouli E, et al. Towards clinical application of pronuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disease. In: Nature, vol. 534; 2016. p. 383–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hyun I. Moving human SCNT research forward ethically. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;9:295–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ISSCR (2007). Guidelines for the conduct of human embryonic stem cell research. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol Appendix 1, Appendix 1A.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johannesson B, Sagi I, Gore A, Paull D, Yamada M, Golav-Lev T, LeDuc C, Shen Y, Stern S, Xu N, et al. Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss-of-imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors. Cell stem cell in press. 2014Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klitzman R, Sauer MV. Payment of egg donors in stem cell research in the USA. Reprod BioMed Online. 2009;18:603–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knaub K. Egg donors get pay limits axed with antitrust settlement, law360, ed. 2016Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kort DH, Chia G, Treff NR, Tanaka AJ, Xing T, Vensand LB, et al. Human embryos commonly form abnormal nuclei during development: a mechanism of DNA damage, embryonic aneuploidy, and developmental arrest. In: Human reproduction. Oxford: England; 2015. p. dev281.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    LEGISLATURE, C. ( ). California code, health and safety code. In HSC § 125355.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liang P, Xu Y, Zhang X, Ding C, Huang R, Zhang Z, et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes. Protein & cell. 2015;6:363–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma H, O'Neil RC, Marti Gutierrez N, Hariharan M, Zhang ZZ, He Y, et al. Functional human oocytes generated by transfer of polar body genomes. In: Cell stem cell; 2016.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Medicine ECOTASFR. Financial compensation of oocyte donors. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:305–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Noggle S, Fung HL, Gore A, Martinez H, Satriani KC, Prosser R, et al. Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Nature. 2011;478:70–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Panel HER. N.I.o. Health, ed. Bethesda, MD: NIH; 1994.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paull D, Emmanuele V, Weiss KA, Treff N, Stewart L, Hua H, et al. Nuclear genome transfer in human oocytes eliminates mitochondrial DNA variants. Nature. 2013;493:632–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roxland BE. New York State’s landmark policies on oversight and compensation for egg donation to stem cell research. Regen Med. 2012;7:397–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sagi I, Chia G, Golan-Lev T, Peretz M, Weissbein U, Sui L, et al. Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2016;532:107–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sauer, M.V. (1998). Principles of oocyte and embryo donation (Springer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steinbock B. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy. The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York. 2004;71:255–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steinbrook R. Egg donation and human embryonic stem-cell research. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:324–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tachibana M, Amato P, Sparman M, Gutierrez NM, Tippner-Hedges R, Ma H, et al. Human embryonic stem cells derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cell. 2013a;153:1228–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tachibana M, Amato P, Sparman M, Woodward J, Sanchis DM, Ma H, et al. Towards germline gene therapy of inherited mitochondrial diseases. Nature. 2013b;493:627–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yamada M, Emmanuele V, Sanchez-Quintero MJ, Sun B, Lallos G, Paull D, et al. Genetic drift can compromise mitochondrial replacement by nuclear transfer in human oocytes. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;18:749–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yamada M, Johannesson B, Sagi I, Burnett LC, Kort DH, Prosser RW, et al. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2014;510:533–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Zakarin Safier
    • 1
  • A. Gumer
    • 1
  • M. Kline
    • 1
  • D. Egli
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. V. Sauer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Women’s Reproductive CareColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolRutgers UniversityBrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations