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Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 1319–1335 | Cite as

Novel concepts in male factor infertility: clinical and laboratory perspectives

  • Sandro C. EstevesEmail author
Review meeting

Abstract

In recent years, the management of male factor infertility has undergone important changes with the introduction of novel concepts, advanced testing, and therapeutic interventions. This review highlights some of these changes and discusses their impact to routine clinical practice. First, we discuss the recent changes in the World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory methods and reference values for the examination of human semen. Second, we examine the role of sperm chromatin integrity tests in light of increasing evidence of the detrimental effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on reproductive outcomes. Third, we summarize the main findings of varicocele-related infertility and the outcomes of microsurgical varicocele repair to different case scenarios. Lastly, we critically discuss the current management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia seeking fertility and the new opportunities that emerged to help these men achieve biological fatherhood.

Keywords

Andrology Male infertility Microsurgery Nonobstructive azoospermia Semen analysis Sperm DNA fragmentation Varicocele 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to Dr. Hakan Yarali for the invitation to develop this review as a supplementary material to the keynote lecture “Novel concepts in male factor infertility: clinical and laboratory perspectives”,  delivered at the “Excellence in ART: Clinical and Laboratory Perspectives” Meeting, Cappadocia, Turkey April 2016.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ANDROFERT, Andrology and Human Reproduction Clinic, Referral Center for Male ReproductionCampinasBrazil

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