Exosome-mediated communication in the ovarian follicle
- 875 Downloads
Cells are able to produce and release different types of vesicles, such as microvesicles and exosomes, in the extracellular microenvironment. According to the scientific community, both microvesicles and exosomes are able to take on and transfer different macromolecules from and to other cells, and in this way, they can influence the recipient cell function. Among the different macromolecule cargos, the most studied are microRNAs. MicroRNAs are a large family of non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. They control every cellular process and their altered regulation is involved in human diseases. Their presence in mammalian follicular fluid has been recently demonstrated, and here, they are enclosed within microvesicles and exosomes or they can also be associated to protein complexes. The presence of microvesicles and exosomes carrying microRNAs in follicular fluid could represent an alternative mechanism of autocrine and paracrine communication inside the ovarian follicle. The outcomes from these studies could be important in basic reproductive research but could also be useful for clinical application. In fact, the characterization of extracellular vesicles in follicular fluid could improve reproductive disease diagnosis and provide biomarkers of oocyte quality in ART (Assisted Reproductive Treatment).
KeywordsExtracellular vesicles Exosomes MicroRNAs Ovarian follicle
The author wishes to thank M Vento and M Purrello with whom she shares her research work. She wishes to thank R Battaglia and the lab staff for their contribution and the Scientific Bureau of the University of Catania for language support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that she has no competing interests.
- 26.da Silveira JC, Veeramachaneni DN, Winger QA, Carnevale EM, Bouma GJ. Cell-secreted vesicles in equine ovarian follicular fluid contain miRNAs and proteins: a possible new form of cell communication within the ovarian follicle. Biol Reprod. 2012. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.111.093252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Diez-Fraile A, Lammens T, Tilleman K, Witkowski W, Verhasselt B, De Sutter P, et al. Age-associated differential microRNA levels in human follicular fluid reveal pathways potentially determining fertility and success of in vitro fertilization. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2014. doi: 10.3109/14647273.2014.897006.Google Scholar
- 30.Santonocito M, Vento M, Guglielmino MR, Battaglia R, Wahlgren J, Ragusa M, et al. Molecular characterization of exosomes and their microRNA cargo in human follicular fluid: bioinformatic analysis reveals that exosomal microRNAs control pathways involved in follicular maturation. Fertil Steril. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.08.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Hung WT, Hong X, Christenson LK, McGinnis LK. Extracellular vesicles from bovine follicular fluid support cumulus expansion. Biol Reprod. 2015 . pii: biolreprod.115.132977.Google Scholar
- 42.Sang Q, Yao Z, Wang H, Feng R, Wang H, Zhao X, et al. Identification of microRNAs in human follicular fluid: characterization of microRNAs that govern steroidogenesis in vitro and are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1715.Google Scholar
- 48.Moreno JM, Núñez MJ, Quiñonero A, Martínez S, de la Orden M, Simón C, et al. Follicular fluid and mural granulosa cells microRNA profiles vary in in vitro fertilization patients depending on their age and oocyte maturation stage. Fertil Steril. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.07.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 55.Field SL, Dasgupta T, Cummings M, Orsi NM. Cytokines in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation and luteinisation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014.Google Scholar