Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 1161–1166 | Cite as

Efficacy of swim-up versus density gradient centrifugation in improving sperm deformity rate and DNA fragmentation index in semen samples from teratozoospermic patients

  • Xia Xue
  • Wan-Shan Wang
  • Juan-Zi ShiEmail author
  • Si-Lin Zhang
  • Wan-Qiu Zhao
  • Wen-Hao Shi
  • Bao-Zhu Guo
  • Zhen Qin
Gamete Biology



To compare the efficacy of swim-up and DGC in improving sperm deformity and DNA fragmentation and to determine which method is better in teratozoospermic patients requiring artificial reproduction.


The present study compared the effects of swim-up and density gradient centrifugation (DGC), the two most commonly used semen preparation methods, on sperm deformity rate and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in semen samples from teratozoospermic patients.


The results demonstrated that both swim-up and DGC yielded a significantly lower sperm deformity rate and DFI in comparison to unprocessed whole semen, with DGC having more favorable results. Sperm deformity rate in unprocessed whole semen samples was significantly lower in the 20–29 age group than in the 40-49 age group, but no significant difference was observed in DFI between different age groups. There was no significant correlation between sperm deformity rate and DFI.


Our findings suggest that enrichment of sperm with normal morphology and intact DNA in teratozoospermic patients could be achieved by both DGC and swim-up procedures, and that DGC is a better method.


Teratozoospermia Sperm preparation Semen analysis DNA fragmentation 



This work was supported by the Social Development Research Project for Science and Technology of Shaanxi Province, China (No. 2011 K15-02-01), the Research Project of Health Department of Shaanxi Province, China (No. 2012D6), and Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2012B040304010)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xia Xue
    • 1
  • Wan-Shan Wang
    • 2
  • Juan-Zi Shi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Si-Lin Zhang
    • 1
  • Wan-Qiu Zhao
    • 1
  • Wen-Hao Shi
    • 1
  • Bao-Zhu Guo
    • 1
  • Zhen Qin
    • 1
  1. 1.Reproductive CenterMaternal and Child Healthcare Hospital of Shaanxi ProvinceXi’anChina
  2. 2.Institute of Comparative MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina

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