Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 341–354 | Cite as

Testosterone and vitamin E administration up-regulated varicocele-reduced Hsp70-2 protein expression and ameliorated biochemical alterations

  • Narges Khosravanian
  • Mazdak Razi
  • Farah Farokhi
  • Hajar Khosravanian
Gonadal Physiology and Disease



This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E (VitE) and testosterone on varicocele (VCL)-induced damage in testis and sperm parameters and their effects on Hsp70-2 chaperone expression and on antioxidant status.


Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control-sham, VCL-induced, VitE-treated varicocelized (150 mg/kg, orally), testosterone-administrated varicocelized (400 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) and VitE + testosterone-received VCL-induced rats. The sperm count, DNA integrity, motility, viability and histone-protamine transition were evaluated after 60 days. The antioxidant status was analyzed by determining testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide desmutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Endocrine status of the testicular tissue was estimated by evaluating the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity using fluorescent analyses for cytoplasmic steroid foci and by determination of serum testosterone. The expression of Hsp70-2 protein was analyzed using imunohistochemical and western blot analyses. RNA damage of the germinal cells was examined with epi-fluorescent examination.


VitE and testosterone administration ameliorated the varicocele-reduced Leydig cell and testosterone level. In addition, co-administration of these compounds recovered the VCL-induced reduction of TAC, SOD, and GSH-px and lowered significantly (P < 0.05) the VCL-elevated content of MDA. The treated animals revealed with a significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of the VCL-reduced expression of Hsp70-2 protein. Moreover, VitE and testosterone significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the VCL-increased RNA damage in germinal cells.


Our data suggest that the protective effects of VitE and testosterone on VCL-induced derangements may depend on enhancing testicular antioxidant status and up-regulating endocrine activities, which enhanced the Hsp70-2 chaperone expression.


Varicocele Hsp70-2 Oxidative stress Testosterone RNA damage 



We wish to thank Mr. Ali Karimi, the staffs of Histology laboratory, for his kind technical support. Also the authors wish to thank the Urmia University for financial supports.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narges Khosravanian
    • 1
  • Mazdak Razi
    • 2
  • Farah Farokhi
    • 1
  • Hajar Khosravanian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Histology, Faculty of Basic ScienceUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUrmia universityUrmiaIran

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