Sperm nucleus decondensation, hyaluronic acid (HA) binding and oocyte activation capacity: different markers of sperm immaturity? Case reports
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During the early time of IVF, sperm competence was defined as the ability to fertilize an oocyte. However, with the advent of ICSI, despite the capacity to reach 2–4cell stage, it is impossible for numerous patients, to establish a pregnancy. Instead the consensus now is that male fertility has to be defined as the capacity to produce sperm cells able to establish a full term pregnancy [1, 2, 3] Basic parameters such as concentration, motility and morphology are of limited value in determining sperm capacity to allow full embryonic development to term. Determination of DNA changes like fragmentation and condensation are independent parameters  and obviously of major importance. DNA fragmentation, related or not to reactive oxygen species (ROS) insult is only one piece of the problem. Indeed, sperm chromatin tertiary structure seems to be critical for correct epigenetic regulation and maintenance, and further on for male fertility [4, 5]. During very early...
KeywordsQuercetin Hyaluronic Acid Homocysteine Aniline Blue Sperm Nucleus
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