Spontaneously developed tail swellings (SDTS) influence the accuracy of the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-test) in determining membrane integrity and viability of human spermatozoa

  • Amjad Hossain
  • Collin Osuamkpe
  • Shaikat Hossain
  • John Y. Phelps
ANDROLOGY

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the prevalence of spontaneously developed tail swellings (SDTS) in human sperm samples that are commonly encountered in the laboratory, and their influence on the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-test).

Methods

Ejaculated, epididymal, and testicular sperm were evaluated for SDTS. Further, HOS-test scores were compared with those of vital stains using column washed sperm maintained in the laboratory.

Results

SDTS, at <10%, was present in all types of sperm samples. The highest and lowest occurrences of SDTS were found in cryopreserved sperm, and column-washed sperm respectively. SDTS can inflate the HOS-test score, and so lower the accuracy of the HOS-test. However, the HOS-test efficiency can be improved by assessing SDTS in the sample.

Conclusion

HOS-test and vital stain cannot be used interchangeably in all circumstances for sperm viability determination. The accuracy of the HOS-test can be enhanced by incorporating SDTS as a correction factor.

Keywords

HOS-Test Spontaneously developed tail swellings Vital stain 

References

  1. 1.
    Jeyendran RS, Van der Ven HH, Perez-Pelaez M, Crabo BG, Zaneveld LJ. Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. J Reprod Fertil. 1984;70:219–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schrader SM, Platek SF, Zaneveld LJ, Perez-Pelaez M, Jeyendran RS. Sperm viability: a comparison of analytical methods. Andrologia. 1986;18:530–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Munuce MJ, Caille AM, Perfumo P, Morisoli L. Does the hypo-osmotic swelling test predict human sperm viability? Arch Androl. 2000;44:207–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Desmet B, Joris H, Nagy Z, Liu J, Bocken G, Vankelecom A, et al. Selection of vital immotile spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic injection by the hypo-osmotic swelling test. 10th Annual Meeting of ESHRE, June 1994. Hum Reprod. 1994;9(Suppl. 4): p. 24.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Casper RF, Cowan L, Lucato ML, Jarvi KA. The hypoosmotic swelling test for the selection of viable sperm for inctracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with complete asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 1996;65:972–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu J, Tsai YL, Katz E, Compton G, Garcia JE, Baramki TA. High fertilization rate obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with 100% non-motile spermatozoa selected by using a simple modified hypo-osmotic swelling test. Fertil Steril. 1997;68:373–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smikle CB, Turek PJ. Hypo-osmotic swelling can accurately assess the viability of nonmotile sperm. Mol Reprod Develop. 1997;47:200–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin MH, Morshedi M, Srisombut C, Nassar A, Oehninger S. Plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved human sperm: an investigation of the results of the hypoosmotic swelling test, the water tests, and eosin-Y staining. Fertil Steril. 1998;70:1148–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jager S, Kremer J, Mijchman J. Hypoosmotic sperm swelling test does not assess fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa. Arch Androl. 1991;26:195–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Esteves SC, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ, Agarwal A. Suitability of the hypo-osmotic swelling test for assessing the viability of cryopreserved sperm. Fertil Steril. 1996;66:798–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Avery S, Bolton VN, Mason BA. An evaluation of the hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test as a predictor of fertilizing capacity in vitro. Int J Androl. 1990;13:93–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martini AC, Estofan D, Ruiz R, Cuneo M. Improving the predictive value of the hypo-osmotic swelling test in humans. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1840–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University; 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gardner DK, Weissman A, Howles CM, Shoham Z. Textbook of assisted reproductive techniques: laboratory and clinical perspectives. 1st ed. London: Dunitz; 2001.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rossato M, Balercia G, Lucarelli G, Mantero F. Role of seminal osmolarity in the regulation of human sperm motility. Int J Androl. 2002;37:207–18.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hossain A, Osuamkpe C, Nagamani M. Extended culture of human spermatozoa in the laboratory may have practical value in the assisted reproductive procedures. Fertil Steril. 2007;89:237–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Misro M, Chaki S. Development of a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible laboratory test kit for the assessment of plasma membrane integrity of human sperm. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:223–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amjad Hossain
    • 1
  • Collin Osuamkpe
    • 1
  • Shaikat Hossain
    • 1
  • John Y. Phelps
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Texas Medical Branch at GalvestonGalvestonUSA

Personalised recommendations