Spontaneously developed tail swellings (SDTS) influence the accuracy of the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-test) in determining membrane integrity and viability of human spermatozoa
To investigate the prevalence of spontaneously developed tail swellings (SDTS) in human sperm samples that are commonly encountered in the laboratory, and their influence on the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-test).
Ejaculated, epididymal, and testicular sperm were evaluated for SDTS. Further, HOS-test scores were compared with those of vital stains using column washed sperm maintained in the laboratory.
SDTS, at <10%, was present in all types of sperm samples. The highest and lowest occurrences of SDTS were found in cryopreserved sperm, and column-washed sperm respectively. SDTS can inflate the HOS-test score, and so lower the accuracy of the HOS-test. However, the HOS-test efficiency can be improved by assessing SDTS in the sample.
HOS-test and vital stain cannot be used interchangeably in all circumstances for sperm viability determination. The accuracy of the HOS-test can be enhanced by incorporating SDTS as a correction factor.
KeywordsHOS-Test Spontaneously developed tail swellings Vital stain
- 4.Desmet B, Joris H, Nagy Z, Liu J, Bocken G, Vankelecom A, et al. Selection of vital immotile spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic injection by the hypo-osmotic swelling test. 10th Annual Meeting of ESHRE, June 1994. Hum Reprod. 1994;9(Suppl. 4): p. 24.Google Scholar
- 13.World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University; 1999.Google Scholar
- 14.Gardner DK, Weissman A, Howles CM, Shoham Z. Textbook of assisted reproductive techniques: laboratory and clinical perspectives. 1st ed. London: Dunitz; 2001.Google Scholar
- 15.Rossato M, Balercia G, Lucarelli G, Mantero F. Role of seminal osmolarity in the regulation of human sperm motility. Int J Androl. 2002;37:207–18.Google Scholar