Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 25, Issue 9–10, pp 437–443 | Cite as

Successful twin birth following blastocyst culture of embryos derived from the immotile ejaculated spermatozoa from a patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia: A case report

  • Richard J. Kordus
  • Robert L. Price
  • Jeffrey M. Davis
  • Gail F. Whitman-Elia



To describe the ultrastructure of spermatozoa from a patient with complete asthenozoospermia that resulted in live births following blastocyst culture.

Materials and methods

Analyses of spermatozoa from a 36 year old patient were performed using light and electron microscopy. The hypo-osmotic swelling test was used to select spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage.


100% of the spermatozoa had dynein arm deficiency with secondary defects varying from 3–17%. Six oocytes were injected; five fertilized normally and one was digynic. All five zygotes formed good quality blastocysts. Three blastocysts were cryopreserved and two blastocysts were transferred. Twin females were born at 37 weeks.


The hypo-osmotic swelling test can be used to select viable immotile ejaculated spermatozoa from a patient with dynein arm deficiency and can produce excellent fertilization rates and blastocyst development resulting in live births.


Blastocyst culture Dynein arm deficiency Hypo-osmotic swelling test Primarily ciliary dyskinesia Sperm ultrastructure 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Kordus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert L. Price
    • 2
  • Jeffrey M. Davis
    • 2
  • Gail F. Whitman-Elia
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Fertility and Reproductive Endocrinology Institute, LLCWest ColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Cell and Developmental Biology and Anatomy DepartmentUniversity of South Carolina School of MedicineColumbiaUSA

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